Materials & Components

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  • Created by: Loren
  • Created on: 06-05-13 17:25

Regenerated (Natural Polymers)

  • viscose
  • modal
  • Lyocel
  • Tencel
  • acetate
  • triacetate
  • cupro
  • alginate
  • rubber
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Lyocell Cycle

(http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0079670001000235-gr1.jpg)

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Manufactured (Man-Made Polymers)

Polyesters:- Trevira, Polartec


Polyamides:- nylon, Tactel, acrylic, Supplex


Aramid fibres:- Kevlar, Nomex, Zylon, Cordura


Elastomeric fibres:- Lycra, Spandex

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Inorganic Fibres

  • glass
  • carbon
  • metallic
  • ceramic (used for anti-bacterial properties, thermal regulation, UV protection)
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Natural Fibres (Cellulosic)

  • cotton (seed)
  • linen (bast)
  • jute (bast)
  • bamboo (bast)
  • hemp (bast)
  • ramie (bast)
  • pineapple (leaf)
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Natural Fibres (Protein)

  • wool
  • mohair (Foreign angora goats) (Shorn 2x a year)
  • angora (Foreign rabbits)
  • cashmere (Eastern Kel goats) (Shorn 1x a year)
  • llama
  • vicuna
  • silk (cultivated & wild)
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Mineral Fibres

  • Asbestos (no longer in use) (Older version of Nomex)
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Fibre Identification

Fibre Length (staple) - the shorter the fibres, the greater the frequency of protruding fibre ends


Fibre Density - affects the weight of the fabrics


Moisture Absorption - absorbing moisture from the atmosphere


Biological Resistance - decomposition


Tenacity - the higher the tenacity, the stronger it is and usually more durable

Braking Extension & Elasticity - wrinkle resistance and recovering after it has been extended

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(Leaf luxury fibres) Pineapple

Properties

  • Natural and renewable 
  • Fine & gauzy
  • Silk-like quality
  • Bleached
  • High cost (for luxury items)
  • From Philippines & West Indies
  • Resistance to moisture

Uses

  • Stiff, silk fabrics for window blinds
  • Wedding dresses
  • Handkerchiefs

(http://img.ehowcdn.com/other-people/ehow/images/a04/sn/k3/care-pineapple-plant-180x180.jpg)

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(Leaf luxury fibres) Banana

Properties

  • Natural & Renewable
  • Makes course springy yarn
  • Good abrasion resistance
  • High tear & tensile strength
  • Produced in Singapore, Australia & Europe

Uses

  • Window & wall coverings
  • Accessories & bags
  • Floor mats

(http://www.freewebs.com/moldybananas/banana5.bmp)

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(Leaf luxury fibres) Sisal

Properties

  • Made from the agave cactus
  • Durable
  • Good anti-static properties
  • Natural & Renewable

Uses

  • Twines & ropes
  • Floor coverings
  • Baskets
  • Can be woven with wool to make it warmer and softer

(http://images1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20120516094928/unchartedwaters/images/b/b8/Sisal.png)

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(Luxury fibres) Coir

Properties

  • From coconuts
  • Spun and hand woven
  • Hard wearing
  • Abrasion resistant
  • Natural & Renewable

Uses

  • Floor coverings
  • Filling for furniture & mattresses
  • Geotextiles
  • Ropes & twines

(http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/images/2011/coconut_50.jpg)

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(Bast luxury fibres) Ramie

Properties

  • High lustre
  • Absorbent
  • High strength
  • Growth in southeast
  • Stiffer & more brittle than linen
  • Has large yield (cropped up to 3x a year)

Uses

  • Rope, twine & nets
  • Lightweight summer garments
  • Usually mixed with polyester or acrylic to soften the fibre

(http://images4.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20130319182733/unchartedwaters/images/6/6a/Ramie_(EA).png)

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(Bast luxury fibres) Jute

Properties

  • Imported from India
  • Very long strong fibre
  • Natural UV resistance
  • Natural & Renewable
  • Low elasticity
  • Like steal wire
  • Difficult to bleach (ends up being creamy white)

Uses

  • Packaging & ropes
  • Carpet backing
  • Curtain fabrics
  • Geotextiles
  • Mixed with cotton for garment textiles
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(Luxury hair fibres)

Properties

  • Naturally fire resistant
  • Good thermal insulator
  • Soft luxurious handle & appearance
  • Renewable resource (popularity may endanger the animal)
  • Expensive (Limited supply) (Irregular supply because some are impossible to rear in captivity) (Many animals needed to make one garment)

Uses

  • Blended with wool to reduce cost
  • Warm luxury fabrics
  • Scarves and knitwear
  • Expensive interior textiles
  • Evening wear
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Why will nettle probably remain a minority fibre?

  • Nettle is grown in the Himalayas, so the distribution cost will be high
  • The process for prepering this fibre is lengthy
  • Other fibres could be used instead of this
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What are the environmental benefits that jute, hem

  • These fibres are all renewable because they are fast growing and grow in poor soil
  • This means the landscape will be less likely to be altered negatively
  • It also has a higher yeild, so it is a worthwhile crop for the soil it uses
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Investigate the causes of the demise of hemp in th

  • Previously been banned as it can be used as a narcotic drug
  • Also, the introduction of synthetic fibres meant hemp was less frequently used
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What properties are common to pineapple, banana, c

They are all renewable because they are fast growing

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What makes pineapple, banana, coir & sisal not sus

  • Some are from specific climates (e.g. sisal is from a subtropical climate)
  • Pina can only be produced by a certain type of pineapple that cannot be eaten
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What characteristics make luxury hair fibres so de

  • Soft handle
  • Appearence
  • Cost
  • Quality
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How do the yields from a muskox and a vicuna diffe

  • Muskox hair has a higher yeild, because animal is able to shed enough to make 40 sweaters every summer
  • The animal can be farmed, which means the quantities can be controlled
  • Vicuna hair has less yeild that Muskox hair
  • Muskox hair would produce the most commercially viable fibre, because it can produce enough hair to meet demand
  • Vicuna hair produces limited hair - making price higher
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