MAKING OF MODERN EUROPE

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  • Created on: 16-04-19 00:17

Week 3: Political change: Revolution and Reaction

  • marx and engels view of proletariat having nothing to lose but their chains
  • heroic view- leaders guide masses to fight for freedom where violence is necessary.  critical view- uncontrolled expression of popular discontent creating chaos, brings death and destruction
  • negative description-- revolt and riot bringing civil unrest
  • goldstone 2009 "are rapid changes in the institutions of gov't carried out by non-institutional means"
  • pincus 2009 "revolutions fundamentally tranform states and society."
  • marx 1849 "revolutions are locomotives of history"

types of revolution

  • GREAT REVOLUTION- economic and social tranformation. institutions break from regime
  • POLITICAL REVOLUTION- only transforms state institutions
  • SOCIAL REVOLUTION- class-based conflict and proletariat awakening
  • 'FROM ABOVE' REVOLUTION- broad transformation by elites
  • 1640- england, 1658- glorious revolution, 1776- US, 1917- russian revolution, 1949- china
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THEORY

  • structural (skocpol) class based movements accomplised by cass action by conscious class
  • aggregate (gurr) many in society become angry
  • modernisation (huntington) modernisation causes discrepancy btw. regime and demands on it
  • demographic (goldstone) demographic growth causes instability resources vs population
  • open regime-- democratic revolutions (US, UK) closed regime--communist revolution (USSR,China)
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Week 4: Political change: Nations and Nationalism

  • essentialist nationalism--nt'l identities are based on evolution of shared identities over time. nations develop distinct traits on kinship and ancestry.
  • constructivist nationalism-- identities recently created by industrialism and state modernisation. means of integrating new competing social groups across spaces.
  • civic nationalism-- shared understanding of political rights and institutions
  • ethnic nationalism-- not by lines of physical descent, but by lines of cultural affinity (Smith 1995)

NATION BUILDING 1590-1610 consolidation of europe---1707 union (british state)---rise of us----1870 german unity---1918-45 yugoslavia founded---1992 independent ukraine

Gellner 1983--  tribalism never prospers, but when it does everyone will repeat it as a true nationalism

italy and germany-- elite constructivist creation of national identity. 

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---Week 5: Political change: Citizenship

  • citizenship- bond between individual and the state. (rights, obligation, equality, entitlements)
  • key concepts- membership, benefits and rights, participation.
  • Citizenship is a condition of civic equality.(R.Bellamy,2008)
  • Politics(4th century bc.)“There inothing more that characterizes a complete citizethan
  • having a share in the judicial and executive part of the government”
  • Civis Romanus:citizenshiin the Roman Empire-Someone who participated in self-governing
  •  assemblies (similar to ancient Greece)
  • political change in 1789 declaration of rights. sovereign is the people, not monarch
  • active citizen men, taxpaying, landowning. passive citizen; women, children, slaves, foreigners.
  • purpose of citizenship? – To shape community-building processes, incl. processes of differentiation and exclusion (Marshall, 1950)
  • 1)end of 18th century. Establishment of civil rights: equality before the law (property, equal access to justice, work, free speech, freedom of assembly, religion, trade unions)
  • 2. early 19th century. Growth of political rights: right to vote, run for office & to participate fully in politics 
  • 3) during 20th century. Social Rights: economic welfare and social security. 
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  • Transnational citizenship • Citizens & denizens: some citizenship rights are now granted to permanent residents. Ø Different categories of citizenship have emerged once again • Transnational institutions have enforced universal rights (E.g. the European Convention on Human Rights). – These constrain national governments.
  •   The European Citizenship The legal definition for the European citizenship can be found in Article 20 of the Treaty of Lisbon (Ex art 17) “Citizenship of the Union is hereby established. Every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union . Citizenship of the Union shall complement and not replace national citizenship.” • In practice, it means that any person who holds the nationality of an EU Member State is automatically a European citizen.
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Week 6:Europe and the Wider World: State Formation

  • state: maps are political objects. state duties: bureaucracy, nationality, taxation, security. have "monopoly of legitimate violence"
  • territorialisation: how we think about the state fiscal capacity: states are characterised by potential growth and wealth
  • westphalia 1648: creates territorial capabilty and state sovereignty

federalism limits the state sovereignty and control. states were concieved as singular political actors. EU as a staeformation project? meets jessops description of roles of the state

Hobbes 1651-- states do this and that, the attribution of person like qualities to states.

absolutist state;; 17th century france.

constitutionalist state;; state and ruler separate. 

Jessop 2010-- human community, violence monopoly, territory, population. SOFT.HARD power balancing coercion and consent. 

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Week 7: Europe and the Wider World: Diplomacy and

diplomacy is management of relationships and effective dealing with others (soft power)

Clausewitz; war as a continuation of politics

Pinker 2011-- "almost all societies have engaged in war at some point, no continent has suffered as many wars as europe"

Rapoport 1968 Philosophies of war 

  • cataclysmic school- war as a curse on humanity, with little purpose, destruction and distruption to society  
  • eschalogical school- part of a greater series of war will conclude in a war-free world
  • political school- war as a state tool and an extension of politics. popular with realists

contemporary european peace: trend towards declining violence. BC of centralised authority, humanitarianism, strengthenedhuman rights. 

EU as "essential in the pacification of europe" Urwin 2013

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Week 9: Europe and the Wider World: Regional Integ

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Week 10: Europe and the Wider World: Migration

  • Everett Lee emphasised an interaction between ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors. 
  • Push factors in migrant countries of origin= mass unemployment, political instability, war, or environmental crisis.
  • Pull factors; in a country of settlemen= labour shortage, high wages, security, education.
  • migration is triggered by a systemic imbalance between push factors in labour-exporting countries and pull factors in labour importing ones.
  • Economists such as Milton Friedman focussed on the role of supply and demand in shaping migration processes-- migrants as ‘rational actors’, whose decision is entirely driven by differences in wages and employment. shaped the way European 60s/70s ‘guest worker’
  • Myron Weiner saw migration as a byproduct of wider social processes such as urbanization and demographic decline.Migration a result of the destabilising effects of industrialisation and modernisation.
  • 17th and 18th centuries population movements bc of economic, military and political factors 
  • Industrialisation from the early 19th century onwards led to a huge demand for labour.
  • The First and Second World Wars led to a outflow of refugees from destabilized countries or dictatorships to countries that regained stability. The redrawing of European borders after 1918 and 1945
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Transnational Migration leads to the emergence of immigrant communities in countries of settlement.

Diaspora networks influence both the domestic and foreign policies of major European states.

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Week 14: Economy and Society: Communism-Rise and F

  • originating from Das Kapital 1967
  • many movements based on market capitalism borrowed from Marx. 

1) history of Hegelian process of stages from capitalism-revolution-communism

2) workers need to seize means of prouction to break through bourgeios power structures

  • 1917 RUSSIA as case study with soviet communism. (AS History!) 1949 China, maoist communism. post-1945 europe; eurocommunism (allied with other movements)
  • Robert Service- communists expected difficulties to fade away. Adam Ulam- Lenin's was a grandiose experiment that failed only bc russia wasn't suited to socialism
  • post-WWII mutual distrust and ideological barrier= cold war. USSR promoted communis in europe and worldwide. had liberation record and were well organised. 
  • KHRUSHCHEV- 1953-1964
  • secret speech= changing regime. 
  • BREZHNEV- 1964-82 
  • stagnation and bureacratisation. 1968 doctrine
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  • post 82= failing system. information flows, failing economy, losing control, lost accountability. 
  • GORBACHEV- has economic collapse happen.  1987 perestrioka economic reforms for state industry recovery. 1987 glastnost openness and relaxing of control. satellite states angry and break off causing USSR collapse.
  • LEGACY
  • capitalist critique stems from communism
  • poor economic success and legacy
  • no ideological pluralism, centralised power, party distrust
  • distrust of politicians and institutions. weak civil society
  • european marxist tradition, incomplete nation-building and forming process 
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Week 15: Economy and Society: Gender

suffage in europe= germany 1918, uk 1928, france 1944

theory-

  • difference feminism; men and women are intrinsically different. separate spheres of influence= women should do what they're good at
  • liberal feminism; equal status of men and women. difference is because of inequality and discrimination. 
  • critical feminism; gender difference is socially constructed (including sex). difference is historically constructed.
  • postcolonial feminism; difference socially constructed but theres also a western and nonwestern difference. deconstruct gender and focus on racial connection
  • Judith Butler; who is the subject of feminism?  lack of separation between mind and body. nature makes female body different. 
  • current debates; motherhood, trans rights, burka an hijab, 
  • female body is a political battleground and is debated on sociopolitical dimension. 
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Week 17: Culture and Identity: Aesthetics, Art, Vi

visual theory-

  • ocularcentrism. means visual images are primary source. romanticism. meant a reaction to industrialism (18/19th c). looked back to past as an imagined golden age. promordial national identity. primordialism. means an ethnic and territorial identity is joined together as a term. 
  • modernism; counters romanticism. nation state and nation are new and artificial. social and economic progression = expression of modernism
  • constructivism; romanticists didnt discover the nation, but created it. chosen symbols and characteristics. 
  • semiotics- interpretation of images and symbols. factual, conventional and intrinsic meaning. 

cartography- acts as a method of power, identity, contains emotional dimension. descriptive- what the world looks like normative- what the world should look like

symbols= visual shorthand, with socially constructed meaning. 

EU has national symbolic strategy like a state. economic integration--cultural ntegration-- identity integration.

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LEXILLOLOGY

  • replaced nations and societies in 19th century.  flags are empty vessels where person gives meaning to it

SHARED MEMORIES

  • national icons and identity express inclusion and exclusion. promoting culture, but EU fails here

NUMISMATICS

  • currency used daily as form of identity formation. has symbols of sovereignty. EU has deliberately fake symbols
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----Week 18: Culture and Identity: The Politics of

  • Symbols are central for any process of political and cultural socialization (Barth 1969, Cohen 1985)- link between Place, Community and Language
  • • Hobsbawm suggests that language should be seen as a key nation- building instrument in late 19th century – No clear link between sense of belonging, identity and spoken language – The ‘idea’ and ‘awareness’ that there is something unique about ‘speaking a language’ is politically and socially constructed • A principle promoted by elites. Language central to state policy à – Define boundaries of inclusion/exclusion of communities – Develop political loyalties – mobilization
  • • Language as an ideology (Michael Billig) à ‘ways of seeing’, nationalism as a particular language for ordering the world
  •  Art. 167 in Lisbon Treaty-- unity in diversity in EU
  • Europeanisation has a transformative ‘power’ (Christiansen et al 1999, p. 539) *Transforming societies *Transforming borders
  • We cannot clearly define what Identity means (EU identity) (Thomas Risse 2001) In Europe linguistic diversity is a fact of life. • Languages are an integral part of European identity and the most direct expression of culture.
  • CHALLENGES- emotion, exclusion, technocracy and bureaucracy, 
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---Week 19: Culture and Identity: Identity and Mem

  • organic view- kinship, tribe, ethnicity (no geographic or religious sphere)
  • linguistic view- language shapes perception of world in subtle way. identities formed by language and communications
  • voluntaristic view- identities formed by communities of choice. (migration, religious conversion, etc)
  • instrumentalist view- created by political authortiy through narratives diffused through insitutions
  • cognitive view- identities and common attitudes and worldviews shared through memory and experience

COLLECTIVE IDENTITY- individual sense of belonging. collective consciousness = mechanical solidarity through shared morals of goals (Durkheim). central to social/political group behavior theory. integration v exclusion and polarisation

  • MEMORY- people construct personal narratives supportive of integrated and efficacious present identities.historical memory-  "individuals as group members who remember". symbolic of mnemonic cultural practices creates social memory. Boyd 2008.   collective memory- Lavabre 2006- form of social memory in which a group constructs a selective representation. social institutions share past 
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Week 2: Political change: Representative Democracy

  • the nation state: construction of public institutions (STATE-BUILDING); formation of popular identity (NATION-BUILDING)
  • to consolidate this: territorial incorporation,
  • territorial incorporation,
  • territorial legitimacy,
  • democratic incorporation,
  • democratic legitimacy
  • Governing by party…must always end in the government of a faction…Party is a political evil, and faction is the worst of all parties” (Bolingbroke
  • gov't is seen as a rational state sovereign and responsible to the people. gov't needs rationality
  • Liberal Parliamentarianism • Representatives: individuals who enjoyed the confidence of their fellow citizens because they belong to their same social milieu • Direct relationship between citizens 
  • birth of the mass party (katz and mair) comes in the industrial revolution, (Daalder) as does the urban/rural cleaveage (lipset and rokkan)
  •  the distinction between accountability and representation
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