ipol 1

  • Created by: madfar
  • Created on: 19-10-17 13:49
can be defined as relating to or denoting the current geological age viewed as the period which human activity has been the dominant influence on climate and the environment.
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Politics is (4 things)
cooperation, politics is who gets what, politics is coercion, politicise is rules for making rules
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• Concept can be defined as
long-term idea or category
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• Conception can be defined as
manner in which something is understood or interpreted
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• Government can be defined as
the arena for making and enforcing collective decisions
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• In a democracy, government offers
security an stablility
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• Political system can be defined as
the broader array of forces surrounding and influencing government
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• Governance can be defined as
relating to the whole range of factors involved in government
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• Politics can be defined as the
process by which people negotiate and compete in the process of making and executing shared or collective decisions
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3 aspects of politics are
1. It is a collective activity occurring between and among people 2. It involves decision making on matters affecting two or more people 3. Once reached, political decisions become authoritative policy for the group, binding and committing the member
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Power can be defined as
the capacity to bring about intended affects
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• Authority is an
an acknowledged right to act with power
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• Legitimacy refers to whether
people accept the authority of the political system
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• Ideology is
human nature, the proper organisation of and relationship between state and society, the individual’s position within this prescribed order
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• Comparative politics can be defined as
the systematic study of government and politics in different countries, designed to better understand them by drawing out their contrasts and similarities
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• Typology is
a system of classification by which states, institution processes, political cultures and so on are divided into groups of those with a common set of attributes
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Aspect perspective;
Politics exists not only in the domain of state but in sport, education, business etc. the aspect perspective opens possibilities of domains and of investigating organisations, institutions, behaviours and interactions that would not have otherwise b
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Domain perspective;
Politics is referred to only in its domain-the state, government, public administration or the public sphere.
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• Conflict exists when
different individuals or groups actively pursue goals or interest that are incompatible with those of others.
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conflict exists when
active pursuit of shared goals or interests
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cooperation arises from
Conflict arises from scarcity, the root cause of all distributive conflicts, scarcity is unavoidable and flows from the uniqueness of indivisibility of something which makes it desirable. Political conflicts are generally interconnected so that the o
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Influence is exercised when actors
determine the behaviour or the choices of the other actors within a set of behavioural alternatives and choices that are available to the latter.
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The positional approach to political power examines the power by focusing on
actors who occupy influential positions
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The elitist notion is that there is a
coherent or unified power elite that dominates society
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The pluralist notion is that the
elite is not uniform but pluriform
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A pluralist perspective involved
research focusing on the results of decision making where there are conflicts of interest.
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Political scientists generalise through;
1. Defining concepts 2. Specifying their theoretical arguments 3. Empirically illustrating and testing their arguments
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Political scientists have a need for evidence and their interests in generalising compels them to
define concepts, specify theoretical arguments, empirical illustration and test their arguments
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The categories of empirical illustration and evidence- (empirical illustration being relying on or derived from observation or experiment/guided by practical experience and not theory)
• Anecdotes • Qualitive case studies • Descriptive quantitative research • Inferential quantitative research
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Political scientists gather date/illustrate and test their arguments through;
• Reading • Conversing-opinions • Observing-observe in real time in different contexts/institutional environments
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1. Public policy is concerned with
the detail of bureaucracy relations, example; what can governments do to make industries competitive?
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2. Comparative politics-policy in context, compares how
one state works to another, example; what role of trade policy will different countries support?
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Political theory is concerned with
the questions of what society should look like-ideal situations, more just/equal/fair societies, example; is trade fair?
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1. Political science is the (one theory which is positivism)
objective discovery of the enduring laws (laws as in ‘if x then y’) of politics; rooted in the natural science (positivism-the idea that we can produce a set of laws and define these laws), viewing ideas as you would in a lab and the next person will
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2. Political science is the (one theory which is post postivism
interpretation of the contingent (changeable/consistently subject to change, many potential factors that can mean rules apply in one situation and not another) rules of politics (post positivism/post modernism)
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• Physical conditions and requirements-material conditions which dictate how political actors will behave
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• Interaction among actors-how actors decide to cooperate, how these things play out and how they differ from what we predict
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• Ideas; principle and perspectives-how different actors see the world, what they believe, logics of appropriateness
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What is the market?
• trade of goods and services • a place for buyers and sellers to meet • supply and demand meet • a concept that we believe exists • the set of actors which constitute the rules/laws of supply and demand
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Constructivist view focuses on
a code between the lines of legitimate and illegitimate behaviour- social reality can be altered, and there can be a new set of morals and a focus on the changeability of arguments
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Core explanations of political action and outcomes emphasises three different factors (explanatory theory)
• Physical conditions and requirements (materialism) • Interactions amongst actors (institutionalism) • Ideas; principles and perspectives (idealism/constructivism)
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What is an actor
Actors within organisations make movements, not the organisations themselves
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Economic liberalism can be described as
how capital and labour come to a form of understanding in advanced economy for a period of time in history.
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The welfare state is a
concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public re
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The race to the bottom is a
socio-economic phrase which is used to describe government deregulation of the business environment or taxes in order to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions. It meant cheaper labour, lower standards, cut public services in orde
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The World Trade Organisation Social Clause
Acquiring international labour rights, was concerned with only the minimal standards of workers’ rights
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The theory of comparative advantage is
an economic theory about the work gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations that arise from differences in their factor endowments or technological progress. The idea is this: a country that trades for products it can get at lower cost from
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 Institutionalism can be defined as
an approach to the study of politics and government that focuses on the structure and dynamics of governing institutions
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 Institutions can be defined as
) the formal organisations or practices with a political purpose or effect, marked by durability and internal complexity. The core institutions are usually mandated by the constitution
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 Institutions possesses
history, culture and memory. In a process of institutionalisation they grow and thicken naturally over time.
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Institutionalisation can be define as
the process by which organisations build stability and permanence. A government department for example, is institutionalised if it possesses internal; complexity, follows clear rules of procedure and is clearly distinguished from its environment
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 New institutionalism can be defined as a
revival of institutionalism that goes beyond formal rules and looks at how institutions shape decisions and define interests
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 Behaviouralism can be defined as
the study of politics that emphasizes people over institutions, studying the attitudes and behavior of individualism search of scientific generalizations
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the 5 approaches to the study of politics
rational choice, structural, behavioural, institutional, and interpretive
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 Structuralism can be defined as
an approach to the study of politics which emphasizes the relationship among groups and networks in larger systems
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ational choice approaches are focused on
people but instead of examining actions, they try to explain the calculations behind those actions
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 The interpretive approach can be defined as
the approach to study of politics based on the argument that politics is formed by the ideas we have about it
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Why study the state;
• There is no distinction between the private realm and what is in public interest (sphere) • State should defend the ideals of the community-the state is an extension of the community • Only through the state that we can reveal that man is a politic
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story 1 of state development
Institutions and functions that make up the state; Accumulations of the state’s institutions-
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story 2
Story 2-the way the relationship between states and their national communities have evolved over time
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1648 peace of westphalia
the modern system is said to be invented - idea of sovereignty and acknowledging each others' religions
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story 3
society of states, the way states have collectively defined what you have to do to be a legitimate actor on the world stage
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signs of change 1
Change through the global economy
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Signs of change 2
Diversity; The super diversity of many societies
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signs of change 3
information- the transformation in the nature of information
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signs of 4
Warfare; an increase in warfare demonstrates how states change/transform over time
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Modernisation theory;
This is a theory of a one-way ticket from authoritarian to democracy, which can go back and forth but all states are heading towards democracy. In this theory, the more educated they are the more likely they’re going to want a democratic state, and i
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- the idea that states must act in concert or must act in institutions. Democrats are undermining the multilateral institutions
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1. Direct democracy
all members of the community take part in making the decisions that affect community
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2. Representative democracy;
members of a community elect people to represent their interests and to make decisions affecting the community
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limited government
; placing limits on the powers and reach of government so as to entrench the rights of citizens
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Ethnic chauvinism
is an exaggerated patriotism and a belief in national superiority and glory
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the practice among those with power or influence of favouring relatives or friends, especially by giving them jobs.
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• All states have 4 defining qualities;
population, legitimacy, territory, and sovereignty • The modern state was born in Europe, and its form was exported to the rest of the world by imperial powers such as Britain, France and Spain
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A state can be defined as
the legal and political authority of a territory containing a population marked by borders. The state defines the political authority of which government is the managing authority; that authority is regarded as both sovereign and legitimate by the ci
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The theoretical justification for the state is provided by the idea of
sovereignty; sovereignty can be defined as the ultimate source of authority in a society. The sovereign is the highest and final decision maker within a community.
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the 4 main aspects of states
1. Population; states contain populations, without whom the territory concerned would be little more than a block of real estate 2. Legitimacy; states are normally recognised both by their residents and by other states as having jurisdiction and auth
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the word sovereginty originally meant
'one seated abpve'
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Total war can be defined as
as war requiring the mobilisation of the population to support a conflict fought with advanced
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• A nation can be defined as a
cultural and historical concept describing a group of people who identify with one another on the basis of a shared history, language, culture, and myths
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• Self determination can be described as
the ability to act without external compulsion. The right of national self determination is the right of a people to possess its own government, democratic or otherwise
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• Nationalism can be defined as
the belief that a group of people with a common national identity has the right to form an independent state and to govern itself free of external intervention
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• Diaspora can be defined as
as a population that lives over an extended area outside its geographical or ethnic homeland
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• A nation state
can be described as a sovereign political association whose citizens share a common national identity
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• A multinational state can be defined as
a state consisting of multiple national groups under a single government
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• Globalisation can be defined as
the process by which the links between people, corporations and government in different states become integrated though such factors as trade, investment, communication and technology.
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• Intergovernmental organisation can be described
as cooperative bodies whose members are states that are established by treaty, posses a permanent secretariat and legal identity, and operate according to stated rules with some autonomy
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• Regional integration can be defined as
the process by which states build economic and political ties that result in some pooling of authority over areas of policy where they believe that cooperation is better than competition
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• Security state can be defined as a
process by which states build economic and political ties that result in some pooling of authority over areas of policy where they believe that cooperation is better than competition
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• Failing state can be defined as
a state with weak governing institutions, often deep internal divisions and where the basic needs of people are no longer met
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• Democracy can de defined as
a political system in which government is based on fair and open mandate from all qualified citizens of a state
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• Democratisation can be described as
the process by which states build the institutions and processes needed to become stable democracies
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• A direct democracy can be defined as
as a system of government in which all, members of the community take part in making the decisions that affect community
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• Representative democracy is when
citizens elect a legislature and, in presidential systems, a chief executive. Representatives are held to account at elections
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• E-democracy can be defined as a
form of democratic expression through which all those with an interest in a problem or an issue can express themselves via the internet or social media
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• An echo chamber can be defined as
the phenomena by which ideas circulate inside a closed system and users seek out only hose sources of information that confirm or amplify their values
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Representative democracy can be defined as
as a system of government in which members of a community elect people to represent their interests and to make decisions affecting the community
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• Liberal democracy can be defined as
a form of indirect democracy in which the scope of democracy is limited by constitutional protection of individual rights
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• Limited government can be described as
as placing limits on the powers and reach of government so as to entrench the rights of citizens
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• Liberalism can be defined as a
a belief in the supreme value of the individual, who is seen to have natural rights that exist independently of government, and who must therefore be protected from too much government
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• Checks and balances can be described as
an arrangement in which government institutions are given powers that counter balance one another, obliging them to work together in order to govern and make decisions
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• Modernisation can be defined as
the process of acquiring the attributes of a modern society, or one reflecting contemporary ideas, institutions and norms
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• Waves of democratisation can be defined as a
a group of transitions from non-democratic to democratic regimes that occurs within a specified period of time and that significantly outnumbers transitions in the opposite direction during that period
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4 stages of democratisation
liberalisation, transition, consolidation, and democracy
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• Authoritarian regimes can be defined as
regimes based on submission to authority, characterised by ruling elites, limited political pluralism, centralised political control, intolerance or opposition and human rights abuses
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• Despotism can be defined as
as the exercise of absolute power, often characterised by the abuse of the powers of office, arbitrary choices and the use of violent intimidation. It can be used to describe the actions of an individual or a group, and the term is used interchangeab
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• Patronage can be defined as
as support, encouragement access, and privileges by one individual on another. In the case of authoritarian regimes, the term describes the use of state resources by leaders to reward those providing support to the regime
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forms of authoritarian rule (7)
absolute monarchy, ruling presidents, ruling parties, military government, theocracy, totalitarianism, islamic
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Corruption can be defined as
as the abuse of office for private gain. It occurs for example when an official allocated a benefit in exchange for a bribe, rather than on the basis of entitlement. The bribe may persuade officials to do what they should have done anyway, or to do i
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A constitution organises the
institutions and relates them to one another. It adds a hierarchy and creates a division between where real power lies and where accountability lies; a constitution is a map for political power.
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The state does not exist in isolation – but in relation with two types of
– societies of people and societies of states
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• Sovereignty – the idea that
territorial states, and only states are legitimate actors at the international level
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• Nation – the idea that
the state is the product of a territorially and ethnically defined people
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Diffuse reciprocity-
There is no law which says that states must cooperate, but there is an underlying principle which means that all states participate on the global level, there is no binding document, but there is a reliance on state personal responsibility. Achieving
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executives do 3 things
determine policy agenda, organise the bureaucracy, represent the government internationally
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A constitution is a
power map containing a set of principles and rules of outlining the structure and powers of a system of government. A constitution is defined as a document or a set of documents that outlines the power, institutions, and structure of government, as w
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 Constitutions can be either codified or uncodified; codified meaning
meaning they are set out in detail within a single document and uncodified meaning the constitutions are spread out amongst several sources, influenced by tradition and practice
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4 characteristics of consitutions
preamble, organisational section, bill of rights, and procedures for amendment
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 A constitution is a form of
political engineering
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 The most impressive/effective constitutions are generally those
that have lasted the longest
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 Entrenchment can be defined as
the existence of special legal procedures for amending a constitution
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 Rigid construction can be defined as
a structure that is entrenched, requiring more demanding amendment procedures
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 Flexible constitution can be defined as
one that can be amended more easily, often in the same way that ordinary legislation is passed
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 Judicial review can be defined as
as the power of courts to nullify any laws or actions by government officials that contravene the constitution
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 A supreme court is the
highest court within a jurisdiction whose decisions are not subject to review by any other court
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 Appellate can be defined as t
the power of a court to review decisions reached by lower courts
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 Where a supreme court is a judicial body making the final ruling on all appeals, a constitutional court is
more akin to an additional legislative chamber
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2 important systems of law
common and civil
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 Common law can be defined as
judicial rulings on matters not explicitly treated in legislation, based on precedents created by decisions in specific cases
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 Civil law derives from
written legal codes rather than cases to provide a single framework for the conduct of public affairs originally developed under roman emperor Justinian
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 Head of state can be defined as
the figurehead leader of a state, who may be elected or appointed, or in the case of monarchs, inherit the position. The role is nonpolitical and has many functions but few substantive powers
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 Head of government can be defined as
the elected leader of a government who comes to office because of the support of voters who identify with their party and platform
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 A presidential government can be defined as
as an arrangement in which power is divided between a president and a legislature. This distinction is achieved by separate survival; the president cannot dissolve the legislature and the legislature can only remove the president through impeachment
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 Parliamentary government can be defined as
the arrangement in which the executive emerges from the legislature (most often in the form of a coalition), remains accountable to it, and must resign if it loses a legislative vote of no confidence
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 A minority coalition can be defined as
as an alliance in which parties, even working together, still lack a parliamentary majority
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 A single party minority government can be defined as
a government formed by the largest party
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 A coalition government can be defined as an
an arrangement in which the government is formed through an arrangement involving two or more parties which divide government posts between them
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 Semi presidential government can be defined as
an arrangement in which an elected president coexists with a separately elected prime minister and legislature
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 A constitutional monarchy can be defined as
a state headed by a monarch, but where the monarch’s political powers are severely limited by constitutional rules
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what is bureaucracy (3)
1. public service and administration 2. rule by officials 3. red tape related to paperwork that has no outcome, steps to get through a process
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• Legislatures are symbols of
of popular representation in politics, and understanding the way they work is central to institutional theory
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• Legislature can be described as a
multi member representative body which considers public issues and either accepts, amends or rejects proposals for new laws and policies
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democratic legislatures have 6 major functions
representation, deliberation, legislation, authorising expenditure, making governments and oversight
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• Committees are the
workhorses of effective legislatures, offering detailed examination of matters of national intertest, including executive and legislative proposals
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• A committee can be defined as a
group of legislators assigned to examine new bills, monitor executive departments or hold hearings on matters of public concern
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• Political class can be defined as a
a group of professional politicians that possesses, and can act on its shared interests
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• Bureaucracy can be defined as literally,
, rule by officials
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• New public management can be defined as a
new approach to bureaucracy that emerged in the 1980s and was based on the idea that a market-oriented approach would make it more efficient
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• E government can be defined
as the use of information and communication technology to provide public services
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• Crony capitalism can be defined as a
phenomenon in which economic development is based on a close relationship between government officials and business leaders, reflected in special tax breaks and favouritism in issuing contracts, permits or grants
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• Developmental state can be defined as
as one in which the state makes active and deliberate efforts to modernise and industrialise a society
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


cooperation, politics is who gets what, politics is coercion, politicise is rules for making rules


Politics is (4 things)

Card 3


long-term idea or category


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Card 4


manner in which something is understood or interpreted


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


the arena for making and enforcing collective decisions


Preview of the back of card 5
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