Literature: To kill a mockingbird & Lord of the Flies

  • Created by: Samantha
  • Created on: 19-05-13 16:06


Lord of the Flies: Do one question, 5 minutes to plan it and  40 minutes to write it. Add quotes and  make sure you keep refering back to  the question

To Kill a Mockingbird: Do both questions, read the question        then read the passage with a highlighter        spend 20 minutes on each question no        longer. Keep linking back to context and        the question.

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Lord of the Flies: Context + notes

Golding served in WW2, his experiences changed his view on humanity and the evils of which it was capable of.

The book is infused with symbolic significance

The book explores:

  • Religious issues - origin of sin, nature of good and evil
  • Psychoanalyst - constant battle between ID (desire), EGO (who you are) and SUPER-EGO (who/what you want to be seen as)
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Lord of the Flies: Themes

  • The need for civilisation/ The basic need of society
  • Good vs Evil
  • Use and abuse of power
  • Innocence and the loss of it
  • Fear of the unknown
  • Blindness and sight
  • The problem of evil in man
  • Betrayal
  • Survival
  • Bullying
  • Justice vs injustice
  • Violence and death
  • Leadership
  • Savagery vs law and order
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Lord of the Flies: Symbols

  • The conch - represents law and order, when it is smashed savagery has won the battle
  • The island - represents paradise (has food and water) with hidden horrors (beast in the dark, the fruit gives the boys diarrhea)
  • The pig's head - the loss of the innocence/savagery, they killed a living thing which means they are no longer innocent children they are savages
  • The beast - the evilness inside all human beings, it is within all humans
  • The fire - hope/life (being rescued) and death (Simon is killed near the fire and smoke from the fire burns to smoke out Ralph)
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Lord of the Flies: Ralph

Athletic, charismatic - Leader at the beggining - The books representitive of order, civilisation and productive leadership - Building huts - Thinking of ways to maximise chances of being rescued - Power and influence secure at the beggining - Ralph's position declines as Jacks rises - Most of the boys except Piggy leave Ralph's group for Jack's - Ralph is left alone - Hunted by jack's tribe - Commitment to civilisation and morality is strong - Main wish is to be rescued and returned to tge society of adults. 

Unable to understand why the other boys give in to base instinct of bloodthirst and barbarism - Hunters dancing and chanting is baffling and distasteful to him - Savagery exists within all boys - Tries not to let this savagery overwhelme him - He experiences exhileration and thrill at Jack's feast - Participates in killing Simon - His story ends semi-tragically - Rescued and returned to civilisation - Naval officer - Weeps, knowledge about the human capacity of evil.

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Lord of the Flies: Jack

Strong willed, egomaniacal - Primary representation of the instinct of savagery, violence and the desire for power - Desires power - Furious when he loses the election - Leader of choirboys - First time, unable to kill pig - Becomes obsessed with hunting - Devotes himself to hunting - Gives himself over to bloodlust - The more savage, the more he is able to control the others - Apart from Ralph, Simon and Piggy - Embracing violence and savagery - Love of authority and violence are intimately connected - Learned to use the boys' fears of the beast against them - Religion and superstition can be manipulated as instruments of power - Survival of the fittest

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Lord of the Flies: Simon

Quiet - Epileptic - Stands on an entirely different plane from all of the other boys - Innate, spiritual human goodness - Deeply connected with nature - Simon acts morally - He believes in the inherent value of morality - Behaves kindly towards the younger children - First to realise the problem posed by the beast - The monster on the island isnt a real, physical beast - savagery that lurks within each human being - Evil within each human being stands as a moral conclusion - Central problem of the novel - Represents a contrary idea of central goodness - Brutal murder - By hands of the other boys  - Unable to tell the other boys about the beast not being real and the message about humanity - Scarcity of that good amid and overwhelming abundance of evil - Jesus figure - The sacrafice 

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Lord of the Flies: Piggy

Rational and intelligent - Overweight and physically unfit - Has asthma - Wears big glasses - Poor Grammar suggests  he comes from a different social background -  Has been brought up by his Auntie - As being grown up by women, isnt very tough - Tries to hold his ground to get his point across -  Victim, bullied by everyone, even Ralph after asking him not to call him Piggy he still does - Thinks logically about things - An outsider, because he sticks to his opinion - Loyal to Ralph - A true friend - Represents law and order - He is killed by Roger at castle rock - Him and the conch die together - Which leaves Ralph vunderable - And savagery has won

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Lord of the Flies - Main Quotes

  • "Acting like a crowd of kids" Piggy
  • "Choir! Stand still!" Jack
  • "His real name is Piggy" Ralph
  • "I ought to be cheif" Jack
  • "Kill the pig! Cut her throat! Spill her blood" The boys
  • "The choir belongs to you of coarse" Ralph
  • "We can use this to call the others. Have a meeting" Piggy
  • The boy that controlled them Jack
  • "I can't think. Not like Piggy" Ralph
  • There was a mildness about his mouth that proclaimed no devil Ralph
  • His hair was red Jack
  • Simon's dead body moved out towards the open sea Simon
  • “Which is better –to be a pack of painted Indians like you are, or to be sensible like Ralph is?” Piggy
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To Kill a Mockingbird: Context + notes

Harper Lee grew up in a small town just like Maycomb in the 1930s just like Scout. In 1931, when Lee was five, nine young black men were accused of ****** two white women near Scottsboro, Alabama. After a series of lengthy, highly publicized, and often bitter trials, five of the nine men were sentenced to long prison terms. Many prominent lawyers and other American citizens saw the sentences as spurious and motivated only by racial prejudice. It was also suspected that the women who had accused the men were lying, and in appeal after appeal, their claims became more dubious.

To Kill a Mockingbird - To take advantage of anyone weaker than you

To hurt or do bad to someone that has done you no harm

The Mockingbird in the novel: Arthur 'Boo' Radley


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To Kill a Mockingbird: The 4 lessons

In the novel Scout learns 4 lessons;

1. Put yourself in other people's shoes - Near the end of the book when she is stood on Boo Radley's porch, it is that specific moment she learns this lesson.

2. Don't kill mockingbirds - it occurs to her what this means after Boo Radley had killed Mr Ewell and Atticus and the Sherrif decide not to mention Boo in the story of his death.

3. Keep fighting even if you know you are going to lose - Atticus still fights for Tom Robinson even though his chances of winning are tiny.

4. The world is very unfair - After Tom Robinson is killed she learns this, that people can be racist and judgemental 

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To Kill a Mockingbird: Themes

  • Racism
  • Justice vs Injustice
  • Individuality vs Community
  • Childhood
  • Prejudice
  • Lonliness
  • Understanding
  • Courage
  • Innocence
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To Kill a Mockingbird: Scout, Jem and Dill


Young - Imaginative - Tom boy - Curious - energetic - People think she is too young to understand - People think she needs to be protected from the big world - People think that she needs to be more ladylike - Narrator - Reader can see things through a child's eyes


Adventurous - Protective - Strong - Brave - Couragious - People understand he is growing up an becoming a man - Scout loves him very much - Scout's brother and companion


Brave - Small - Outsider - Troublemaker - Curious - Confident - He is passed from family member to family member - They treat him like family - Represents childhood innocence - Has a special bond with Scout

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To Kill a Mockingbird: Boo Radley, Miss Maudie, Au


Unseen - Mysterious - Scary - Outsider - Kind - Gentle - People are scared of him - He stabbed his dad in the leg with scissors - People are curious about him - Represents the Mockingbird - The savior


Role model - Minds her own business - Supportive - Respected member of the community - Neighbour - Everybody respects her - Her house sets on fire and everyone comes together as a community - She is a widow - In the novel she is the role model and friend


Strict - Uptight - Well known - Popular lady of Maycomb -  Wants Scout to be a lady - Brave - Atticus's sister - Wants to get rid of Calpurnia at first but then begins to like her - Scout hates her at first because she is horrible to her but after seeing the way she coped with the news about Tom Robinson she gains another level of respect for her 

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To Kill a Mockingbird: Atticus

Calm - A true gentleman - Caring - He is a lawyer - Isn't racist - An older father - Single father - Lost his wife - Wise - Proffessional - Most pople have a lot of respect for him - Jem thought he was too old - Some people dilike him for defending a black man - Scout + Jem's father - Defence lawyer for a black man accused of ****** a white woman 

Key Quotes

Mad dog : 106 - 108

Mockingbird : 99

Never understand : 33

Answer a child - 97

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To Kill a Mockingbird: Calpurnia

African American - Servant - Can be harsh - Kind - Protective - Motherly - Scout loves her but doesnt always show it - Atticus respects her despite her race - Aunt Alexandra wants to get rid of her but then becomes to like her - Mother figure - The carer 

Key Quotes 

Angry at Scout's manners : 22

Mad dog : 103

Jem growing up : 122

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To Kill a Mockingbird: Maycomb

  • Small, quiet town
  • Fictional town in 1930's south America
  • A lot of 'facts' are based on gossip
  • What would seem like a small issue in some towns is a major incident in Maycomb
  • Slow moving town
  • Racially divided, whites are racist to blacks and blacks are racist to whites
  • An old town
  • It's a friendly town, with lots of old ladies baking cakes and small-town sheriffs saying folksy things
  • However, it also has morphine-addicted old ladies, abusive families living by the dump and a pretty nasty racial divide
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To Kill a Mockingbird: Main events 1

  • Atticus and Calpurnia are raising Scout and Jem. 
  •  Dill comes to visit his Aunt Rachel.
  •  He and the Finch children keep watch on the Radley house.
  • Dill decides to make Boo come out of the Radley house
  • Dill returns home.
  •  Scout starts 1st grade. 
  • Walter comes to dinner.
  • Boo leaves 2 pieces of chewing gum in the Radley’s oak tree.
  • Jem and Scout find a small box containing two polished pennies
  • Jem, Scout, and Dill try to look in Boo’s window.  Nathan Radley fires a shotgun.
  • Scout starts 2nd grade.  Jem and Scout find soap carvings of a boy and girl in the knothole
  • They find a spelling medal
  • They find a pocket watch, chain, and knife
  • The knothole is filled with cement
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To Kill a Mockingbird: Main events 2

  • Tom Robinson arrested
  • Snow.  Jem turns the snowman into a caricature of Mr. Avery
  • Miss Maudie’s house burns down; Boo puts a blanket around Scout’s shoulders
  • Atticus agrees to defend Tom Robinson
  • Cousin Francis calls Atticus a “****** lover”; Scout fights him
  • Atticus shoots a mad dog in the street
  • Jem is punished for cutting off Mrs. Dubose’s camellias
  • Mrs. Dubose dies
  • Jem & Scout go to Calpurnia’s church
  •  Aunt Alexandra moves in
  • Dill returns to Maycomb
  • Atticus and the children stop a lynch mob at the jail
  • Scout, Jem, and Dill sit in the balcony.  Testimony.  Talk with Dolphus Raymond.  Calpurnia comes to court.  Tom R. is found guilty.
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To Kill a Mockingbird: Main events 3

  • Calpurnia discovers gifts of food on the porch
  • Lunching with the ladies of Maycomb
  • Tom Robinson is shot attempting to escape from prison
  • Bob Ewell loses his job, leaves a hate note at the judge’s home, and stalks Helen Robinson. 
  • Scout prepares for a part in the Halloween pageant.
  • Ewell attacks Scout and Jem; Boo stabs Ewell.  
  • Scout sees Boo and escorts him home.
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Lord of the Flies: Main events 1

1. the boys arive on the island
2. Piggy finds the counch and Ralph blows it
3. The first meeting is held and the boys specify what is needed for them to survive on the island
4. Ralph is elected leader(chief)
5. Jack and his choir form the hunting party
6. Tension between Jack, the antagonist who only wants to hunt and kill, grows between Ralph, the progonist who continues to belive that they must try and survive and try to get off of the island.
7. Talk of a "Beastie" forms on the island
8. Jack, sick of Ralph and the society he's created, forms a new tribe and most of the boys follow him.Jack perclaims himself new chief

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Lord of the Flies: Main events 2

9. Jack and his hunters viciously kill a mother pig, cut off its head and leave it as a sacrifice for the "Beastie".
10. The Jack invites everyone who hasn't joined his tribe to a feast where the eat the pig.
11.Simon is murdered by all of the boys after being mistaken for the "Beastie" at the feast.
12. Samneric(Sam and Eric) are forced to join jack.
13. Ralph and Jack fight
14. Piggy is killed by Roger
15. the counch is destroyed after is falls
16. Ralph is alone and Jacks tribe sets out to kill him as the did the pig.
17. A rescue party arrives and Ralph and the others leave the island at last 

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