Kidney Failure

  • Created by: amyquince
  • Created on: 05-06-19 17:04


- detected by measuring glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) - rate at which blood is filtered from glowerulus and bowmans capsule, lower rate than normal indicates that kidneys are not working properly

- can be caused by kidney infections - cause inflammation which can damage cells and interferes with filtering in the bowmans capsules or with reabsorption in the nephrons

- can be caused by high blood pressure - can damage glomeruli, capillaries can be damaged if pressure gets too high meaning larger molecules light proteins can get through capillary walls into the urine.

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- waste products build up in the blood

- fluid starts to accumulate in the tissues because kidneys cant remove excess water from blood

- balance of electrolytes in body becomes unbalanced so body may be too acidic, build up of calcium and phosphate can cause brittle bones, salt build up may cause more water retention.

- long term kidney failure causes anaemia - lack of haemoglobin 

- can eventually lead to death

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- machine used to filter patients blood

- patients blood passed through dialysis machine - blood flows on one side of a partially permeable membrane and dialysis fluid flows on other side

- waste products and excess ions diffuse across membrane into dialysis fluid

- blood cells and proteins prevented from leaving blood

- patients can feel unwell between dialysis appointments as waste products and fluid start to build up in their blood

- each session takes 3-5 hours and need 2-3 sessions a week in hospital - expensive and inconvenient

- can keep a person alive until kidney transplant available and is a lot less risky than major surgery.

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- new kidney has to be same blood and tissue type, often donated from living relative (only need 1 kidney to survive), can also come from organ donnors

- advantages over dialysis:

- cheaper to give them transplant than keep on dialysis over a long time

- more convenient for a person than dialysis sessions

- dont have problem of feeling unwell between dialysis sessions

- disadvantages;

- will have to undergo risky major opperation

- immune system may reject transplant so the patient has to take immunosuppressants

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