Kidney Failure revison notes for OCR F214

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Kidney Failure
How does kidney failure occur?
Kidney failure can arise from a number of different factors:
diabetes mellitus (type I and type II)
hypertension
infection
What happens when kidneys fail?
The body is unable to remove waste substances and excess H2O from the blood.
The waste substances include urea and excess salts.
The accumulation of waste substances is harmful to the body: if left will ultimately lead
to death.
Treatment of kidney failure
There are two main ways in which a person with kidney failure can be treated:
dialysis
kidney transplant
Treatment with dialysis
Dialysis is the use of a partially permeable membrane to filter the blood.
The process removes wastes, excess fluid and salt from the blood by passing the blood over
a dialysis membrane which is partially permeable.
The membrane keeps the blood and dialysis fluid separate, but allows for exchange of
material between them.
The dialysis fluid contains:
salts
urea
water
other substances present in the blood plasma
Haemodialysis
Haemodialysis is a big burden on someone's life and prevents them from doing many things
they would otherwise be able to do. It must be undergone in a clinic at least three times a
Damilola Fasoyiro A2 Biology
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Peritoneal dialysis
The dialysis is done internally and not via a machine.
The filter is the body's own abdominal membrane (peritoneum).
Firstly a surgeon implants a permanent tube in the abdomen.
Dialysis fluid is inserted through the catheter into the space between the abdominal wall
and surrounding organs.
After a couple of hours, the used solution is drained form the abdomen.
This process must be performed in several consecutive sessions daily.…read more

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