- Created by: chezellee
- Created on: 17-03-19 15:14
- Consul in 59 after forming First Triumvirate.
- Was consul alongside Bibulus.
- Fulfilled his roles of the First Triumvirate.
- Settled Pompey's veterans.
- Ratified Pompey's eastern arrangements.
- Passed Crassus' Asian tax ideals.
- Passed Campanian Law
- Redistributed land in Italy to veterans, fathers of families, etc.
- Tightened laws on Provinces to make it harder for governors to exploit taxes.
- essentially just took actions to make things harder for elites and optimates and make things easier for the urban poor.
- Also established himself as military commander in Gaul for 5 years.
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Caesar and Cato
- Essentially had inimicitia.
- Cato despised Caesar's reforms as a popularis.
- Caesar despised Cato's constant attempts to block him.
- Cato took control over Pompey in the Civil War to rebuff any action that Caesar took.
- Cato committed suicide in 46BC to avoid having to submit to Caesar.
- Caesar wrote 'anti-Cato' after Cato died, detailing his lifelong frustrations with him.
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Caesar and Pompey
- Caesar and Pompey were initially friends. Caesar had given his daughter to him in marriage, who Pompey was said to love intensely (in a non-Roman fashion)
- Pompey obviously grew too jealous of Caesar.
- However it was said that Caesar was upset about Pompey's murder in Egypt.
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Caesar and Cicero
- Caesar appeared to admire Cicero's rhetoric skill and had asked him to join the First Triumvirate initially. Cicero had refused.
- It seemed Caesar wished to impress Cicero and seek some approval from him, visiting him as the civil war was brewing.
- Cicero deliberated for sixth months before choosing to follow Pompey.
- The two had a shared love for oratory and writing.
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- Performed by a group of optimate senators: some of which actually had been veterans of Crassus.
- Their aim was to save Rome from the tyranny of dictatorship.
- Fear that Caesar was to be king of Rome also had taken hold over their beliefs.
- Due to Caesar's ideal of clementia - his enemies were able to take revenge.
- Brutus and Cassius were the key liberators.
- Caesar's death announcement was publically announced and did not actively bring any saving of the Republic.
- Instead actually pushed Rome into the Second Triumvirate - redundant.
- Caesar's heir Octavian took hold of Rome with Mark Antony.
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- Initiated the civil war in 49 and became dictator shortly after.
- A large amount of his dictatorship was spent trying to return to popular reform.
- He increased the number of people in the Senate to 900
- This action appeared to make the Senate more powerful but in fact actually made it so that it was harder for any specific legislation to be passed as it had to go through more people.
- He initiated a programme of urban public work.
- eg flood protection improvements, new forum, road improvements. This improved the daily lives of the Roman people.
- Establishment of 'Colonia'
- Essentially allowed it so that pressure was taken off the land in Italy and people could be settled in provinces.
- Granted full citizenship to all who lived between the Po River and The Alps, and Latin status to those on the island of Sicily.
- Provides debt relief
- Creditors to forgive one-quarter of all principal loans, with the state compensating them for the loss
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The Civil War
- Throughout the fifties/late forties, Pompey was developing jealousy of Caesar.
- Caesar had gone to campaign in Gaul after his consulship of 59 and thus was away from Rome.
- During this time, Caesar was writing commentaries, which he had sent back to Rome to be published. These writings were becoming popular amongst Romans.
- Pompey had been the most successful military commander in the past, and thus saw his light was dying out and Caesar was replacing him. Therefore, there was a growing rivalry.
- In 56, Caesar called the conference of Luca, to try and settle the drama between the breaking Triumvirate. It is decided that they will all get provinces for 5 years and that Pompey and Crassus will be consuls for the next year.
- Everything appears settled until Pompey's wife, Caesar's daughter Julia dies. Pompey rejects marrying Caesar's offer of his grand niece and instead marries an optimate daughter, Caecilia Metella.
- Crassus dies suddenly during battle in 53 and soon after, the Triumvirate is broken down.
- In the year 50, Caesar's campaigns in Gaul come to an end and he plans to return to Rome to run for Consul of the next year again.
- However, Cato and his optimates are stirring up fear of Caesar in Rome, now allied with Pompey.
- Cato gets an optimate Tribune elected.
- Pompey declares Caesar to give up his Imperium if he wants to return to Rome.
- Caesar doesn't want to anger Pompey, instead offers they give up Imperium together; not wanting to give up his glory. He doesn't even return for the Consulship.
- Curio, acting in Caesar's place, requests Caesar's actions to the Senate. The Senate vote on it 370/22, but Marcellus instead proposes that Caesar is declared an enemy of the state.
- Curio returns with more proposals but Cato rejects them, proclaiming Caesar is a threat.
- Mark Antony tries to veto action against Caesar but is ignored (illegally)
- Martial law is passed against Caesar and Caesar declares that the Senate have abandoned Mos Maiorum.
- Caesar crosses the Rubicon and starts the war.
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