Judgement - Messiah and Afterlife



Literally means anoited one - refers to to the future leader of the jewish poeple - messiah not explictly mentioned in the torah  - introduced during the time of the Prophets- De Lange - 'one of the most distincitve ideas of classical judaism'

According to the writings of the prophets -th ere will be a time when the hewish people are free from other natrues - jewish people will return to israel and the temple is restored in Jersualem

God's presence will be felt by everyone, jewish people and gentiles - 'he will teach us his ways, so that we may walk in hi spath

some of the prophets claim that this futrue age will be associated with a human leader sent by god who will create a peacful society - Messiah as a judge who will be peace - 'with righteousness he will judge the neddy'

'Antone who does not bleive in him or does not await his coming not only denies the rest of the prophets, he denies the torah and of Moshe Rabbeinu - Maimonides

'All the prophets prophese only for the days of the mesiah - Talmud

'The world was created only for the messiah' - Talmud

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Messianic Age

No defied and unified concep tof what the messianic age will look like- De lange - 'one Rabbi, for example states that it is vain to hope for a future messiah'

Babylonian Talmud does not subscribe to the fact that the messianic age will be a supernatural disturbance in history - 'no different from the present expect that Israel will no longer be subject to the kingdoms of the world'- During the middle ages there was ana greement that there would be a personal messiah but dissagreements about whether or not it would be supernatural

Maimonides - warned against the expectation that the course of nature would be changed - messiah will restore kingdom of david to it's former glory - restore temple - purpose of messianic age is to be free to study the torah and prepare for the afterlife - recited every moring 'i believe with complete faith in the coming of the messiah and even if he tarry, I nevertheless wil wait for his coming'

Orthodox jwes believe that Jersualem will be rebuilt and the dead will be resurrected - Reform Jews reject the notion that they are in exile - believe in messianic age but not the restoration of a jewish state

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Death and the resurrection of the dead

No real theolgoical significance of death other than it being part of God's plan - belief in resurrection of the death - Day of Judgement is when there will be a resurrection of the death

'but your dead will live, their bodies will rise... the earth will give birth to her dead' / 'Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting lif,e others to shame and everlasting contempt' - it is suggests that these passages come from a later date are are influenced by persion thought- Prophet Daniel does not mention the term messiah but the son of man

Maimonides claims that resurrection of the dead is a foundation of belif however he believed in resurrection of the immoral soul not the body- Hasdai Creasas (medieval philospher) - lifetime body and soul co exist - ultimate reward/punishment for both - bodily resurrection- Midrash claims that the humbel will be raised first - those buried in Issrael

Orthodox jews maintain a belief in resurrection and makes refence to it at daily prayer - object to cremation - Reform Jews believe in resurrection of the soul - 'we will consider the matter when they come to life again

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Olam Ha-ba

Olam Ha-ba World to come

Death is not the end of human existance- Very little to be found in the torah about what happens when a person dies -no accpeted agreement

Emphasis in living now and forever in the ways god intends- Minshnah says - 'be like servants who serve their amster not for the sake of recieving a reward'- 'this world is like the eve of shabbat and the olam ha-ba is like shabbat' - Talmud- De langs - concept of rewards and punishments comes form the post biblical era of judaism

The souls of those who have lived on forever in tranquility whilsit the osuld of the widef go down to gehenna - suggestion that soul of the dead wait in the garden of eden

Orthodox jews - body and soul- however 'we achieve immorality primarly through the goodness we bring to other lives' - pirttsburg platform - 'reform Judaism rejects the idea of bodily resurrection but accepts the view that the soul is imortal and the spirit is divine' - Pittsburg Platform

'so god created manking in his own image'- suggests immorality

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