Development in Christian Thought

  • Created by: M.Qvvlls
  • Created on: 07-06-19 09:45

Augustine on Human Nature; Background

- Catholic mother, he didn't follow religion but fluctuated between ideas.

- Met a bishop who taught him to read the OT symbolically. 

- Had a RE in a garden, became emotional and hear a voice 'take this and read' which he interpretted as a command from God, so read St Paul's letters. 

- Later joined a monastery and became a Catholic Bishop of Hippo. 

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AOHN; Human relationships pre and post fall

State of perfection before Fall, Adam & Eve's relationship as friends;
- time of harmony, complete obedience between A&E to God, when human body, will and reason are in complete cooperation. 
- Ex Nihilo; meas from nothing you can choose to do good or evil, believe in God or reject him. The will is God given, created with humans.
- in paradise, A&E married as friends, equally and mutually friends of God. Sex always secondary to friendship as friendship is the highest expression of human existence. Sex when required should occur without lust, Adam able to summon erection at will. Will in complete harmony with body. 
Lust and selfish desires after the Fall;
Cupiditas (self love) and caritas (generous love) are both necessary elements of will, in order to love neighbour must love self.
- A&E ate forbidden fruit to become like God.
'The snare of concupiscence (sexual lust) awaits me' the fall of man weakened will. We should aim for continence (self restraint) and focus on abstaining from sexual pleasures.
'Human nature is without any doubt, ashamed about lust and rightly ashamed' believed A&E meant humans could never be truly good. Humans unable to control lust, soul dominated by concupiscence. Mans spontaneous erections etc show weakened will.
St Paul; 'For I have the desire to do what is good but when I cannot carry it out. 

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AOHN; Original sin and its effects on the will and

OS passed through sex causes selfishness and a lack of freewill
- originates in fall, passed to all gens.
- Double death; 1st- caused by Adams rebellion in Garden of Eden (embarassment at being naked before God, 2nd- inherited death of every human being as punishment for Adam's sin.
- Humans are prone to sin, only God knows who is deserving of his Grace (the elect) all humans can do is perservere and hope they desereve God's grace.
'Who will rescue me from this body of death'- Romans.
Purpose of faith- recognise failings, trust God's grace and maybe achieve summun bonum.
Lack of stability/ corruption in all human societies
- Augustine; OS is a chain of disasters, every sexual act is uncontrolled lust (concupiscence) so every human is born into sin, only exception is Mary and Jesus.
- Augustine is blamed for Western Church obsession with sex.
God's Grace;
- Augustine- only G's Grace/ generous love can overcome sin and the rebellius will to achieve the greatest good/ summun bonum.
- Jewish doctrine does not include Fall, instead interpret as journey of life, some christians also believe this- born innocet (tabula rasa) but loose this innocent and have to battle to life with Christ. Life is a physical and spiritual journey, death is not the end.

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AOHN; Scholars

Dawkins; Fall is contrary to evolutionary biology. Absurd to belive that two people caused all sin and immorality in humanity.

Steven Pinker; Christianity has been responsible for human violence and suffering.

Reinhold Neibuhr; by removing God nothing is absolutely right or wrong, causing greater injustice and suffering. 

Sigmund Freud; rejected God as sex drives humanity, we have to monitor it within society. Noticed people were conditioned from early life/ childhood not original sin.

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D&A; key words

Disembodied existence; existing without a physical body.

Resurrection; living on after death in a glorified physical form in a new realm. 

Beatific vision; a face to face encounter with God.

Purgatory; a place where people go temporarily after death to be cleansed of sin before they are fit to live with God.

Election (theological); predestination, chosen by God for heaven or hell.

Limited election; God only chooses a small number of people for heaven. 

Original sin; passed by adam and eve to all humans according to Christians.

Particular judgement; judgement for each person at the time of death.

Parousia; used in christianity to refer to the second coming of Christ. 

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D&A; Resurrection

- Christians believe after death there is new life, rejects reincarnation/ rebirth and Platonic dismebodied existence, do believe the soul will be given a new spiritual/glorified body in terms of resurrection. the person who lives on after death is the same, just incorruptible.
- Before Jesus, Pharisees believed in resurrection as it is mentioned in OT book of Daniel, Christians believe in resurrection because of Jesus.
- Gospels say that after cruicifixion, Jesus' body was place in a heavy tomb with a stone over the entrance, on the third day the stone was rolled away and the tomb was empty. Jesus was then seen and heard by his followers, as a man in a physical body. Christians believe this means they too will ve resurrected after death.

Paul writing about life after death in metaphors;
1 Corinthians- metaphor of seed transforming into new plant it will become to show how the physical earthly body will be transformed to fulfil its potential.
2 Corinthians- metaphor of tent being replaced with a solid house, to show how life in this world is temporary and will be replaced by something long-lasting.
3 Corinthians- metaphor of being naked in this world but clothed in the afterlife.

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D&A; Resurrection and quotes & John Hick Replica T

John 11- 'I am the resurrection and the life, he who believes in me, though he may die, shall live. and whoever lives and believes in me shall never die'. 
RCC for most of 2000 year history only permitted burial, however in 1963 Vatican allowed cremation as you simply believe in resurrection.
Rowan Williams; resurrection lies 'on the frontier of any possible language'- an integral and ineffable, mystical idea, although integral part of Christian faith. 

Four Gospels; meaning 'good news' in Greek is a written account of Jesus teachings. They are the only sources of info about Jesus. (Mathew Mark Luke John). 

John Hick's Repica Theory;
Resurrection is possible as humans are a psycho-physical unity, rejects dualism, defends resurrection seeing it as an action in which a replica of ourselves is created in a different realm observable only by God.
1. John Smith lives in America, dissapears suddenly, replica found in India, sceptical friends forced to conclude he is the same person because he has the same memories and emotions.
2. Imagine instead of disappearing John dies, friends would have to reach the same conclusion even if his corpse is in America.
3. Imagine when John dies his replica appears on a new world, inhabited by resurrected people.

if we can accept these strange scenarios are in some way logically possible then life after death is a meaningful concept, God's omnipotence makes this possible.

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D&A; Heaven

- Christian afterlife is heaven. Christian symbols of heaven; idea of returning to a family home/ idea of place where there will be no more suffering, idea of plenty, surrounded by angels, meeting God the father who will be seated on a throne. 
- Heaven is often not taken literally, most Christians dont believe heaven as literal but a spiritual state which a person recognises & accepts God's grace, is forgiven and made whole (hell as a place that rejects God and chooses sin).
- An eternity of endless days to praise God or timeless in terms of Aquinas' beatific vision. Heaven transform& perfect whole of creation, Jesus second coming (parousia). Bible shown through symbolic language parables.
- Arguments against heaven after death; raises more qs than as, especially if physical resurrected bodies which will take up space. if physical how would they eat or age? how the same person in heaven if we have a different glorified, eternal body, makes heaven nonsensical, a mystery we cannot understand in this life.

Bernard Williams; Christian heaven would get boring, people would run out of things to do, woudln't have exciting challenge of making choices &how to use a limited lifespan. could be argued God wouldnt let us feel this.

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D&A; Heaven- Aquinas and Beatific Vision

Aquinas' Beatific Vision

- afterlife in terms of beatific vision (face to face with God for eternity). beatific vision is not in time, instead a timeless vision, no more time (past, present or future all brought together), might avoid problems of heaven getting boring or taking up room. 

Karl Rahner- Catholic, supported timeless afterlife, endless days had too many problems.

- philosophical issues- how is physical resurrection possible in beatific vision? bodies exist in time, how could people continue as they were before death, when so many human characteristics are directly related to living within time. 

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D&A; Hell

Trad. christian teaching, hell as eternal punishment, away from God's presence. Bible described as fire and torture, darkness and sometimes as rubbish dump. Often described as downward from this world. How can God be omnipotent/ benevolence/ omniscience etc as well as have hell exist?

Hume- what could a human possibly do to deserve eternal punishment? wrongdoing God deserves infinite punishment as God is infinitely good.

Hick- loving God wouldnt allow hell etc to become boring. 

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D&A; Purgatory

- doesnt explicity appear in Bible, developed by early Christian thinkers (e.g. Augustine).

- 6th c Pope Gregory explored purgatory as a place/ idea where souls are cleansed before heaven.

- normally a place of cleansing synbolised by fire, soul recognises its sin and is punished. 

- RCC prayers help loved ones get through purgatory.

Rahner; not a place of horrible pain but a metaphor for souls awareness of sins and consequences. 

Protestants; dont normally believe in purgatory as it isnt explicitly in the Bible and it suggests Christs suffering was not enough.

Middle ages; charging people for shorter time in purgatory.

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D&A; Election

  • Predestination
    • God chooses destiny of soul and knows before birth
    • 16c John Calvin - 'Omniscience = knowledge before each birth, omnipotence = choice must be in Gods control'
  • Augustine limited election
    • God save limited number through grace
    • No one deserves salvation due to OS
  • Calvin
    • 'God chose some for eternal life in Heaven and some for eternal punishment'
  • Karl Barth
    • Unlimited election - Jesus brought salvation for all / anyone whom accepts Christian message
  • John Hick
    • Universalist approach - Everyone is saved eventually, spiritual journey continues after death
    • Pope Benedict XVI - If everyone is saved regardless of faith, Christ's death seems pointless 
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D&A; Judgement, Matthew parable of the sheep and g

  • Christians share view of Gods judgement.
  • Bible/Christian Views
    • Some (Prophets and saints) fasttrack to heaven, others wait till time of Gs choosing at EoW
    • Everyone waits till end of time for judgement day
    • Each person goes to heavn etc as soon as they die
  • Matthew Parable of the Sheep and Goats
    • Told by jesus about when the son of man comes in his glory
    • Describes judgement as when people are separated in the same way as when a shepherd splits up the sheep and goats
    • Chosen for heaven due to how they treat others in need
    • Those sent to punishment is due to ignoring people in need
    • Doing something for people in need =[ doing someething for jesus himself
    • Parables say God has prepared a place for those who follow him in heaven
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D&A; Universalist


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D&A; Limited Election


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D&A; Unlimited Election


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KOGE; Innate human sense of the divine

  • Natural Knowledge / reason
    • Revelation through beauty of the world - 'the heavens declare the Glory of God' and thrugh traditional wisdom (e.g. Prophetic knowledge)
  • Catechism of RCC
    • Knowledge of God is innate in conscience - 'only in God will we find the truth and happiness He never stops searching for'
  • John Calvin and Sensless divinitas (innate sense of the divine)
    • Knowledge of self = knowledge of God
    • Conscience is our God given faculty as creatures made in likeness/image of
    • God shows himself through nature so people can understand 'Nature reflects God like a mirror'
  • Cicero -'So many people believe in God so there must be a God'
  • Alistair McGrath (Chems led to faith) -World is a system of signs to God - like stepping stones
  • St Paul
    • 'For what can be known about God is plain to them as God has shown it to them'. Human sense of beauty = music reading and landscapes.
  • Human intellectual ability to reflect and recognise Gods existence 
    • William Paley, Watch analogy design around the World
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KOGE; Revealed knowledge of Gods existence

  • Barth likes as didnt believe argument or evidence for Christianity - Gods revelation must be accepted by faith unaided by reason
  • Jesus as God incarnate - literally god coming into meat
  • Martin Kahler - We dont believe in Christ because of the Bible we believe in the Bible because of Christ
  • Keywords
    • Immediate revelation - God makes himself directly known to people e.g. Prophet
      • Abraham when God asked him to scrifice his Son for the promised land
    • Mediate revelation - People learn of God less directly e.g. those who trusted Moses to the promised land
    • Religious experiences and visions - e.g. Jacobs dream in which land is promised to his descendants
    • Bible itself - Christians believe as a source to know God, provides information otherwise undiscovered e.g. creation of World
  • Faith
    • Faith, a voluntary committment to belief - no need for evidence, does not have elements of doubt acc. Aquinas
  • Calvin 'Only know God through Jesus' must have corporeal experience
    • Formed faith by Aquinas - willing to trust Bible, knwledge needed to form faith
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KOGE; Gods Grace and revealed knowledge of God

  • Grace as God's gift of knowledge through the Holy Spirit
  • Grace of God, unconditional and undeserved gifts. People can gain knowledge through faith due to Grace - full knowledge only known when God chooses
    • Grace is free/cannot be earned
    • Sola Scriptura; we only need the Bible to get to Heaven
  • Revealed knowledge of God
    • Platinga - half way point between natural and reveled theology, rejected natural theology but likes senseless divintatus as majority of people believe in God
    • EGF Morrison - 'Who moved the stone'
  • Life of the Church
  • The Bible e.g. Adam and Eve and Abraham
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TPOJC; Son of God (Miracles)

  • Within trinity, Jesus is Son of God. Referred to in Gospel as Son of God. St Paul speaks of Jesus as Gods own Son in Romans. However Jesus didnt refer to himself as SoG.
  • Jesus had unique knowledge of God
    • Jesus' knowledge of God creates a puzzle, implies Jesus and God are serparate but know eachother
    • Early Church 'hypostatic union' between God and Jesus - two natures united in one person.
    • Issues - Did Jesus have free will/if not can we praise him
    • Rahner - Jesus had layers of connsciusness. Human (self) nearer to surface and God deeper within
  • Miracles NT show show jesus = miracle worker
    • feeding 5000 with two loaves and five fish
    • Walking on the water/calming the storm
  • Hume 1800s
    • Miracles should always be treated with scepticism - we should believe the more likely explanation (God of the Gaps)
    • NT miracles should be understood as intentions of writers to show Jesus power and authority
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TPOJC; SoG (resurrection)

  • Resurrection
    • The greatest miracle, also resurrected Jairus' daughter
    • McGrath 'resurrection shows Gods victory over death, gives substance to hope of eternal life'
    • O'Collins - Jesus rising from dead shows kingdom of God. Resurrection = full and final revelation of Jesus
      • Essential part of Jesus' message
    • Paul: No faith without resurrection
    • N.T. Wright, EP Sanders. Belief in resurrection maintains Christianity as belief system
    • Resurrection shows God and Jesus' power
  • Mark - Garden of Gethsemane "a heavenly voice declares Jesus as 'my son'" (crucifixion)
  • John - 'The father and I are one' in Greek meaning one in essence and in substance
    • Doubting Thomas to Jesus 'My lord and my God'
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  • John Hick
    • Must interpret supernatural elements of Jesus' life as symbols - to enter full and healthy dialogue with other religions
    • Problem; what will then give Jesus' teachings authority as SoG
  • Gifts given to baby Jesus foreshadowed his death and future
  • 4 Gospels were written by Jesus' friends/followers & proclaimed propoganda to convert others to Christianity- they could've put words in JCs mouth etc.
    • Took Council of Chalcedon 400 years to decide Jesus is both fully man and fully divine.
  • T. Carlyle- 'if arianism had triumphed at Nicea, Christianity would have lost its pulling power'.
  • Pannenburg- 'Jesus resurrection is a unique sign of Gods perfection and completion, revealing Jesus was God'.
  • 'I am' sayings from St John's Gospel;
    • I am the bread of life
    • I am the light of the world
  • God with Moses says 'I am that I am'.
    • Ani Whu- Hebrew for 'I am'
    • Ego Eimi- Greek for 'I am'
  • Jesus claimed to be God by forgiving sins which was blasphemy. 
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TPOJC; Jesus as God and Man

  • Jesus forgave sins - to Christianity only God can forgive, therefore Jesus must be God
    • Jesus lived on Earth, suffered pain for humanity and experienced death
  • God and Man are v. different - how could he be both!
    • Didnt have sinful human nature
    • Capable of temptation to evil but rejected it unlike A&E
  • First council of Nicea and council of Chalcedon
    • Jesus was of the same substance as God known as homoousisos
    • Rejected Jesus as a mix/blend of two differing characters
  • Medieval Christian theologians have knowledge of God in three ways:
    • Face to face knowledge of God and all eternal and created things
      • Scientia visionis
    • Infused knowledge, not learnt but given by God
      • Scientia Infusa
    • Knowledge of life in normal human way - gained through experience
      • Scientia Experientiae
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  • As Rabbi (someone who studies scriptures)
    • Followers used to address Jesus as Rabbi as he knew Jewish scripture
    • Taught in Synagogues, gospels suggest people were surprised by his intelligence
    • Scribes and Pharisees asked questions to test him
    • J spoke of interpretation, scripture and morals and importance of love always
    • Moral teaching includes; forgiveness of sins, love of enemy, love of God, choosing morality over wealth
  • Lewis 1952 - to accept moral teaching must accept SoG, making him either deceitful, delusional or truthful
  • Bonhoeffer - We meet God in other human beings, incarnation of Christ allows us to encounter God in a special and unique kind of way
  • Hick - Jesus as God incarnate is best understood as mythology, Jesus' moral teachings can be found in works of others e.g. Mohammed (pbuh)
  • Wittgenstein - admired Jesus' authentic human living and role as ToW
  • Dawkins - Jesus was a great moral teacher
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TPOJC; A Liberator

  • Liberator of marginalised and poor
    • Picking corn on the Sabbath
    • 'The Sabbath was made for the man not Man for the Sabbath'
  • Challenged the social injustice
    • Challenged social conventions and theological liberation from sin and death, spoke against domination of rich over poor and included social outcasts in his mission
    • Luke's Gospel, emphasis on inclusion of Women in Jesus' mission
    • He appeared to MM first after the resurrection
  • Challenges to political authority
    • At the time Palestine was controled by the Romans
    • Jews were allowed to continue traditions as long as they caused no trouble
    • Jews awaited a Messiah like OT King David
  • Gustavo Gutierrez - Jesus wants more than Palestine and combats exploitation and injustice
  • RC Priest Restrepo - If Jesus were alive now he would be in charge of a communist army
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TPOJC; Christological, a study of Jesus' divinity

  • Jesus was unique as he was born from Theotokos
  • High Christological view - McGrath
    • SoG is more important than teacher or liberator
    • Resurrection and incarnation originally attracted people to Chirsitianity - it is now what is criticised. How can you criticise what you already believe
  • Low Chirstological View - Hick
    • J is more important as Teacher and liberator than divine incarnation and resurrection
    • To be both God and Man is contradictory
    • Spinoza - develops Aquinas. Being both God and Man is like being a square circle
  • Miracle of the calming of the storm
    • HCV even the weater obeys him
    • LCV storm was dying away anyway represents emotional storms not physical
  • Jesus as not divine
    • He never said I am God
    • Pontius Pilate asked - 'are you the son of God' and Jesus replied 'you say that I am'
    • SoG was a term showing a special relationship between God and Jesus bu there was not expectations of divinity
  • Pannenberg argues what happened to his body, did his followers just invent the resurrection
  • On the Cross Jesus said 'my God, my God, why have you forsaken me'
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TPOJC; Uniqueness of Jesus

  • Hick
    • Not unique, triumph of hope over despair is normal
  • John McQuarrie
    • Jesus' life was unique due to human relationship to God
  • Sanders
    • Jesus was substantially different to others in his time, but not unique
    • Resurreection belongs to subjective category of faith
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CMP; Theonomous Ethics, Heteronomous Ethics


  • Bible is only authority on Christian Ethical Practices
  • St Augustine and St Paul believed in OS. Humans are weak willed and incapable of living good lives so must follow Gods commandments
  • Fundamentalism/Biblicism - Bible is revealed word of God so should be soul source of authority
  • OT - TC. NT - Sermon on the Mount, 613 laws of the Torah, Covenant
  • Barth - You should worship God not the Bible


  • Bible, Church and reason as sources of Christian Ethical Practices
  • Use of several sources of ethics, RCC teaches that we need to use Bible, Church teachings and God given reason when making decisions. Bible is important but further advice has been written for differing societies e.g. Environmental Ethics
  • Papal Encyclicals (words/advice from Pope) are believed to be infallible
  • NL is basis for RCC, believe Conscience is a tool given by God but not always right
  • Magisterium is official set of teachings/guidance through PE - Humans know right from wrong but due to sin need guidance
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CMP; Liberation theology and autonomous ethics

  • Liberation theology is a radical strand of Catholicism believed it is right to question/fight authority promoting peoples will - strongly criticised by the Magesterium
  • Protestant Ethical Heteronomy - Bible as primary source of authority, uses virtues of Jesus for guidance
  • Stanley Hauerwas - Christian ethics can only be done in a Christian community
  • Autonomous ethics; love (agape) as the only Christian principle which governs Christian practices
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CMA; Dietrich Bonhoeffer

  • DB believed that as Jews and Christians both believed in Jesus they are one, Nazis killed Jewish blood. DB joined confessing Church to remove Hitler
  • Went to New York at 24, Black Gospel Worship changed his life due to a lack of passion elsewhere
    • Brought Gospel music back to Germany
    • Likened race problem in America to Hitler
  • Grew up in academic family; Father well known psychologists, chirstian mother following death of eldest son in WWI leading to DB choosing theology - 'nothing is so at odds with prayer than being vain' - can see anyone but the vain praying
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CMA; Duty to God and Duty to the State

  • DB knew what was happening to Jews when others didnt and chose to work for Hitler for God
  • DB ordained as Christian minister in '31 during the rise of AH, German protestant churhces were divided
  • Some German Christians joined Nazis believing AH was the embodiment of Christs values
    • Prohibted Jewish ancestry from working for the Church. Tried to remove OT - Nazi ideology had stronghold over Church
  • Other Christians (DB) disagreed with Nazis as opposite to CHristian message. Formed new church, called confessing CHurch, rejecting Nazis. Calling to be true to the discipleship and Gods commands. DB's criticism led to conflict with those in power - saw it as cultish.
  • Obedience, leadership and Gods will
    • Arrested and imprisoned for money laundering used to save Jews
    • Arrested for attempted bombing of AH
    • Hung for his involvement 3 weeks before AH suicide
  • Key book: 'Letters and Papers from prison'
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CMA; Obedience, discipleship and disobedience

  • Based on Gospels - believed all Christians are called to discipleship/follow Jesus, we have to choose which leader to obey - much like Jesus' first followers responding to his authority rather than accepting a set of doctrines
  • Call to discipleship = leave old life behind/move into unknown - all other responsibilities are abandoned. Christians shouldnt try to fit faith around previous life conveniently but leave all behind and be obedient to Christ - this caused controversy - do Christians not need other laws/civil disobedience
  • Urgency of Christianity - demands immediate and single minded obedience to Jesus which is learnt and understood through practice.
  • Civil disobedience - active open refusal to obey laws by govt, DB thought this was sometimes necessary as God is more important than State
    • DB wrote a letter - 'We would both follow the state and lose Christianity or defeat the nation so Christianity does survive' - Chrisitans need to make active challenges against injustice
  • DB acts of CD
    • Became double agent working for German military and resistance using Church meetings to smuggle information, disguised Jews as military intelligence and smuggled to safety
    • Opnely challenged Nazis - spoke out at University and lost his job - openly prayed for defeat of Germany calling AH the anti-Christ
    • Rumours to assassinate AH unclear whether true
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CMA; Church as community and source of spiritual d

  • A letter to Finkenwalde: Nazis have attacked God and Gods people
  • DB wasn't pacifist but refused to fight AH war - moved to America to teach, felt Lord call him back where his family were involved with conspiracy against AH
  • Many of AH advisors were Christian and hated AH, DB joined to make links with conspirators


  • Sermon on the Mount (Matt 5,7), followers of JC must be 'salt' and 'light' meaning add flavour to community and be a leading example to others
  • DB: Bible says Christians don't have but are salt - not just share christian teaching with others but do it themselves. The 'good works' christians are asked to act then suffer. 'Religionless Christianity' waiting for time after war when christians could focus on call to discipleship rather than being simply 'religious'. 
  • DB role in Confessing Church in Finkenwalde;
    • formed 1934 as breakaway from national Reich in Germany which wouldn't allow Jews/ non aryan ancestory of ministers, merged church with Hitler youth.
    • DB trained new pastors in secret (illegally as it didn't apply aryan restrictions), encouraged those to spend time in prayer, Bible study and singing spirituals- some argued there was no time for quiet reflection in Nazi Germany.
    • at Finkenwalde DB experimented with Christianity to be a source of refuge and renewal for those being persecuted. 
    • Gestapo under Himmler discovered Finkenwalde in 37, closed it down, arrested students.
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CMA; cost of discipleship

  • Costly Grace- prepare for it, Grace of God is worth sacrificing everything for. Is costly as it calls Christians to follow Jesus and make changes to their lives and decisions. DB: we should reflect on God sacrificing his only son to save others from sin (we should respond in same way).
  • Cheap Grace- the 'deadly enemy of the church' describes habit amongs most Christians of freely accepting God given gifts, but not doing anything too uncomfortable or risky in their lives. DB thought Christians believed JCs sacrifice was enough and they didnt need to change. Reliance on cheap grace made church secular- 'millions of spiritual corpses'.
  • Sacrificce and suffering- call to discipleship links closely to passion of JC, anyone who follows JC must pick up cross and follow his path. Discipleship & costly grace involve self denial and endurace. Being Christian isnt just normal but a life of suffering for Christ.
  • Solidarity- existing for others/ solidarity= DBs theology, close link to discipleship. DB offered to stay in London to learn from Ghandi about principles of non-violence, but chose Finkenwalde seminary instead. Could have safely escaped to USA but chose Germany instead. Purpose of Christian life is not to be religious but in a relationship with God through living for others, allowing Christians to participate in the being of Jesus. Solidarity led DB against Nazis with resistance, accused of attempted assassination, sent to CCamp, awaited execution, hung without trial.
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RPAT; theology of religion, Exclusivism

  • Theology of religion- Christians thinking about relationship with people of other religions or no religion. 


  • Christianity- salvation only for those who believe in JC as SOG and believe salvation is in JC. Crucifixion & resurrection as real events, rejecting other means to salvation.
    • Some believe truths can be found in other religions but not enough for salvation. 
    • 'Particularist' is less negative than 'exclusivist' to describe 1 way to salvation.
  • Hendrik Kraemar- salvation is only for Christians, God's revelation can be seen outside Christianity- either religion accepts Christ's salvation or it doesnt.
  • Barth- emphasised 'theology of the word'- knowledge of God can only be found when God chooses to reveal it through his word. JC was living word of God.
  • Narrow exclusivist- salvation for some, not all, Christians. Augustine; God chooses the elect. Before Vatican II RCC- no salvatin outside of RCC.
  • Broad exclusivists- all who accept Christ in faith are saved, whatever denomination or worship type.
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RPAT; Gavin D'Costa- Exclusivism and Criticisms

Gavin D'Costa; two types of exclusivism

  • 'Universal access' exclusivists- salvation to all & will of God that all come to him through JC.
  • 'Restrictive access' exclusivists- similar to Augustine and John Calvin, God only saves who he chooses (the elect).

Criticisms of Exclusivism 

  • Doesnt work with all loving and forgiving God, suggests God loves some more than others (some have more opportunity to become Christian- Mao etc wouldnt allow Christianity)
  • Causes social division and conflict
  • Doesnt recognise richness and wisdom of different world religions
  • Arrogant to assume Christians alone know best etc
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RPAT; Inclusivism

  • Used for range of views between exc and plural, tend to favour Christianity for salvation but allows possibility for salvation from beyond. 
  • Agree JC crucifixion and resurrection are unique but reject idea loving God would reject someone dedicated to another religion.
  • Some argue a chance after death for non-Christs to accept truth of Christ message. Some believe when truth is found in other religons, it is Christian truth.
  • 'rays of truth'/'rays of light' in other religions pointing towards Christianity.
  • Some- non Christians call Christ by other names without realising (anonymous Christians).
  • Rahner (RCC theologian)- 
    • Christianity= absolute religion, offering salvation through Grace of God in Christ.
    • Anonymous Christians (following Christ ideas without realising).
    • Achieve salvation if they seek God with sincere heart in ways other than Christ.
    • Partial truths to non-Christ religions.
    • Some havent been exposed to Christ not their fault.
  • Critcisms of Inclusivism-
    • Christ message diluted if suggests Christ isnt necessary for salvation.
    • Arrogant stating Christianity as best.
    • 'Anonymous Christians' is rude, if they wanted to be Christian they would be.
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RPAT; Pluralism and Criticisms of

  • Used for range of positions that argue different religions can lead to salvation. 
  • Different religions share same goals. No need for conversion, instead communicate and share different perspectives/styles of worship. 
  • Hick; believe God of love wouldnt deny salvation for those born non-Christian/ choosing another path to God. 'Copernican revolution'- removing Christianity from centre, replacing it with 'the real' (God)- all religions revolve around 'the real'.
    • Used Kant's 'noumenal' (what really are) and 'phenomenal' (what we see through limited understanding) to make his point- religions are noumenal, human attempts at phenomenal. All religion is therefore flawed/ limited as humans are, no religion can claim to be entirely right. Believed claims such as Jesus was incarnate should be understood as myth.
  • Raimon Panikkar; pluralist from Hindu/Catholic, emphasised mystery of divine and need for humility/ openness to find truth. God makes himself known in variety of ways/ cultures- must realise God chooses to show self.
  • Critcisms;
    • Not Christian approach, rejects Christ saving from sin.
    • Revolves aroun an expectation for God which is no less arrogant than exclu/inclu.
    • Can be seen as contradictory imposing pluralist views as right, making it absolutist.
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RPAT; Biblical Texts

  • Exclusivists;
    • John 'Jesus answered 'I am the way, the truth and the life, no one comes to the father except through me'. 
    • Timothy 'there is one God and one meidator between God and mankind, the man Christ'.
  • Inclusivists;
    • Mathew 'whatever you did for one of the least of theses brothers and sisters of mine, you did for me'.
    • Job (before JC) 'I know that my redeemer lives and that in the end he will stand on the Earth'.
  • Pluralists;
    • Micah 'What does the Lord require of you? To act justly and have mercy and to walk humbly with your God'.
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RPAS; Development of multi-faith societies

  • Globalisation; global village due to technology, web means info flows in secs, transport makes acessibility easier.
  • EU- free movement between member countries, faiths mixed and had to accept eachother.
  • UK- predominant Christian in 7c due to missionary, now multifaith, (although different small faiths living in UK for 100s of years. For centuries most encountered only Christians, not other faiths.
  • 2011 Census- 59.3% of people identified as Christian. 
  • Multifaith societies develop due to travel and communication development, people moving for work, refuge, QOL etc, conversion also inc due to availability of info.
  • Atheism and Agnosticism more socially acceptable.
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RPAS; Christian responses to interfaith dialogue,

  • about communicatio between different faiths/ideas. Not new concept but has been given more attention as societies have developed, about exchanging ideas & perspectives with aim of promoting a better understanding of others.
  • COE; Sharing the Gospel of Salvation
    • dialogue of daily life- informal convos occur naturally where people talk about their beliefs.
    • dialogue of common good- different religious groups work together to benefit others.
    • dialogue of mutual understanding- get together for formal discussions.
    • dialogue of spiritual life- different faiths agther to pray/worship.
  • David Ford; two occassions in recent history requiring IFD-
    • Holocaust/ WWII- Christians rethought relationship with Jews- no longer regard Judaism as failed religion due to rejection of Jesus, dialogue initated by Rabbi invitation to Christians called 'Dabru Emet' (speak the truth).
    • 9/11- leading muslim scholars letter in 2007 to Christian Churches 'A comon world between us and you' as an opportunity to consider similarities and differences and discuss.
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RPAS; Redemtoris Missio & Sharing the Gospel of Sa

  • RCC Redemtoris Mission (The Mission of the Redeemer)
    • Papal Encyclical by Pope John Paul II in 1990, intend revisit Vatican II. Aim to clarify Cath. teaching on missionary work in multi-faith world. Reaffirmed essential for Christians, only 1 saviour JC. Christs.=empowered by Holy Spirit to bring others to Christ.
    • Improve 'negative' view missionary work, said IFD should be seen as part of Christian message, not opposition to it- God shares revelation with all faiths, even those with 'gaps, insufficiencies and errors'.
    • Acknowledges truth in Bud, Hindu, Islam but Christ. duty to emphasise salvation is through JC.
    • IFD should be respected & used to uncover universal truths.
  • Sharing the Gospel of Salvation (COE document in response to 'should Christians publicl claim salvation is only through Christ?) 2010, reaffirms Gods plan for salvation through JC.
    • All christians are called to discipelship- must share faith with others.
    • Go beyond tolerance of other faiths and engage with people.
    • Reaffirms Christ. belief about oneness of God and JC in incarnation.
    • Christ. offers salvation for all, called to bring others to faith in baptism to Christ. Church.
    • Warns against treating mission as marketing, should only be work of God converting.
    • Reminds that history and mission havent always lived up to Bible teachings
    • Reminds own faith and trads are result of others missionary work. 
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RPAS; Key Words

  • Multi-faith societies- societies with signifcan populations of people with diifferent religious beliefs.
  • Missionary work- activity with aim to convert people to a particular faith/ set of beliefs, or works for social injustice in areas of poverty and deprivation.
  • Interfaith dialogue- sharing and discussing religious beliefs with members of different religions to reach a better understanding.
  • Encyclical- open letter to more than one recipient.
  • Synod- legislative body of COE.
  • Social cohesion- group united by bonds that help them live together peacefully.
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G&S; Key words and facts

  • Gender; relationship between biological sex, perception of themselves and behaviour.
  • Biological sex; physical attributes, chromosomes, hormones, penis/vagina.
  • Socialisation; lifelong process in which we learn the norms of society which can influence gender expression and gender identification.
  • Patriarchal society- male dominated social structure and relationships.
  • 97% of TV sports are done by men
  • Gender pay gap exists due to 1975 equal pay act.
  • year 2186 women will achieve equal pay.
  • Since 2016 ascension of Theresa May as PM, nothing has happened.
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G&S; Feminism waves and types of Feminist

  • First wave; focus on right to vote.
  • Second Wave; focus on women's health, contraception, abortion, domestic violence, equal 60s.
  • Third Wave; rejection of gender roles, FGM, gay rights, male midwives, female soldiers, duo parenting, maternity and paternity leave.


  • Liberal- equality through campaigns, political rights, most common type.
  • Radical- want to eradicate all signs of patriarchy, sometimes violent. Kate Millett; damages name of feminsm. Germaine Greer; 'all men hate women'. 
  • Separartist; separate men and women in society, political lesbianism.
  • Marxist; dismantle patriarchy, pay for housework &careers for women. Works to give women time to do both housework and a proper career, against capitalism.
  • Christian; pursuit of gender equality in church and teachings, such as female priests. Biblical feminists; Mary Magdalene and Jesus. God has no gender. 
  • Black; mainstream feminists fail to represent women of colour, similar to liberal. 
  • Eco; women and natural world, global warming has been caused by man's destruction of Earth/ patriarchy, women care more about Earth than men. 
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G&S; UK law timeline, reasons for and against equa

  • 1918; some women over 30y allowed to vote
  • 1928; equal voting right
  • 1967; womens abortion
  • 1970; equal pay act
  • 1974; family planning clinics and perscription of the pill
  • 1975; equality act (job interviews)
  • 2015; shared p/maternity leave
  • Wome should be equal in the Church;
    • both male and female saints, Mary Magdalene, Mary mother, Ruth, Esther, Naomi
    • JC appeared to Mary Magdalene first & showed female character of loving and pacafist
  • Women should not be equal in the Church;
    • Hormones make different characteristics- evolutionarily different 
    • God and JC are male, as are all disciples
  • Plato; women are inferior to men, men who didnt live life right first time round come back as women.
  • Aristotle; women are naturally inferior to men as they dont produce semen (only part to making baby- women is just a baby oven).
  • Aquinas; women are inferior in strength and intelligence- Eve made from Adam.
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G&S; Christian teachings on equal and unequal, Mul

  • Equal Biblical
    • Genesis; 'God created mankind in his own image, male and female he created them'.
    • Ephesians; 'husbands, love your wives just as Christ loved the church.
    • Ephesians; 'man will leave mother and father for wife, two become one flesh'.
  • Unequal Biblical
    • Genesis; 'God made woman from mans rib and brought her to man'.
    • Genesis; Eve blamed for taking fruit and giving it to Adam.
    • Ephesians; 'Wives submit to husbands like they do to the Lord'.
    • Peter; 'Husbands, treat wives with respect as they are weaker'.
  • Mulieris Dignitatem;
    • 1988, Pope John Paul II on rights of women
    • Men and women have different characteristics from God
    • Praise of women saints, Christian women should be respected
    • Jesus came to Earth through a woman
    • God's gift to women is reproduction
      • Motherhood is the fruit of marriage, women have special bond with children, childbirth pain is from OS and links to sufferring of JC
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G&S; Family

  • Trad. two parents with biological children. Family; social unit providing protection and socialisation for members, sharing tasks.
  • Trad Christ; married before children. Catholic sacrament- cannot be broken.
  • Divorce
    • Protestants accept it even though it isnt good.
    • RCC; humans cannot end marriage, unbreakable sacrament. If marriage is damaged irretrievably they may live apart but cannot divorce or remarry.
  • Contraception
    • Catholics; no artificial allowed, telos of sex is to reproduce, children are a gift from God.
    • Protestants; fine to plan family and show love.
    • Feminists; fought for contraception.
  • Abortion
    • Most Christians are against as it ends potential life, however sometimes allowed due to doctrine of double effect when the lesser of two evils.
    • Feminists fought for this too.
  • Same Sex Marriage
    • Many Christians see as 'unnatural', accept relationships but do not believe in marriage between partners.
    • Some accept marriage and perform them (Quakers)- love comes from God.
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G&T; Rosemary Radford Reuther

  • Maleness of Christ; Christ. is disorted by patriarchal traditions and needs to be reformed.
  • Calls herself an eco-feminist, campaigns for ordination of women and to change Catholic anti-abortion law.
    • Conversion of Lydia; purple cloth dealer, female, owns a house, believer of God.
    • Mary Magdalene; JC appeared to her first after crucifixion.
  • Eco Feminism; Ancient Greek philosphy, God of Earth is Goddes Gaia- mother nature. 
  • Made in God's image means made with both male and female characteristics. 
  • Jesus' challenge to the male warrior-messiah expectation;
    • OT Davidic messiah, Jews didnt accept JC as they expected OT but got Servant King.
    • Theology focus- JC being caring, Christians must follow non-stereotype characteristics.
  • God as female wisdom principle;
    • Goddess; roots of Judaism (basis for christ.) werent monotheistic, idea of Goddess as source of life, relationship &worship with God.
    • Female God of Wisdom; ancient time wisdom = always female 'breah of power of God'.
    • Sophia- Greek for Wisdom, philosophy means lover of wisdom, Bible wisdom is reffered to in female terms. Provers; 'Wisdom has built her house'.
  • Jesus as incarnation of wisdom; Divine wisdom on Earth. Link Sophia (divine wisdom) with logos (the word/Jesus) 'in the beginning was the word, and the word was with God and the word was God' John. Shows female and male side of God were both present at creation.
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G&T; Critcisms of Reuther;

  • Simon Chan- we cannot reinterpret Christian story to give more focus on women, to downplay maleness of God is wrong, in Christianity God is never called Mother.
    • However this is unusual, Gods and Godesses usually came in pairs at the time and to specify maleness of Christianity is important.
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G&T; Mary Daly

  • 'If God is male then male is God'.
  • Radical post Christian theologian, believed men & Christianity oppress women. Rejects;
    • role of women as mothers as a primary focus.
    • catholicism- only men ordained, male centred langauge of God used in Bible, male dominated ethical and theological theories reinforce patriarchy.
  • 'Unholy Trinity' of ****, genocide and war
    • 'rapism' culture of **** in society, man has ****d society through pollution, racism, nuclear arms race, poverty, destruction of environment.
  • Men erase fem power in society in culture, relig, polit, media through footbinding, widow burning and unequal rights/ education. 
    • **** of 100s of Bengali women.
  • Leaders of society use media, relig, culture, polit. to erase fem power and keep in submission, national violence and **** of women are used to show power and status over women.
    • Moses 'kill all boys & every woman who has slept with a man, but save for yourself virgins'.
  • **** industry creates 'arm chair rapists' & encourage men to feel power over women, reinforcing patriarchal society.
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G&T; Mary Daly

  • Sexual caste system; ****- cultural manifestation of sexual caste system
    • a hierarchy that gives unequal power.
    • exploitative sexual caste system is perpetuated by consent of victimes (females) and dominants (males) through sex-role socialisation. 
    • **** & genocide- male sexual violence forms basis of military violence, **** objectifies.
  • Patriarchal culture formed through historic socialisation of groups such as Nazis that raise male status and lower dwmale status.
  • Sexual caste system, perpetuated by RCC- Jews being chosen by God.
  • Daly 'beginning of liberation comes when women refuse to be good by standards'.
  • Genocide; men use lang to justify war (just war theory).
    • Phallic morality/ mentality- used to defend war, men think with dicks and justify war with dickness. Daly wants women to stand out against patriarchal expectations and seek liberation from moral hypocrisy. 
  • 'Incarnation of Christ is symbolic legitimation of **** of all women and all matter'.
  • underlying culture of ****, genocide and war is impregnated in Christianity and is fundamental to it that to change culture means leaving Christianity.
  • Spirituality experienced through nature;
    • women can experience God through nature e.g. sunsets and beauty etc.
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G&T; Criticising Daly & Scholars

  • Simon Chan- Christian God - trinity goes beyond idea of God as male as it is multipersonal. male lang doesnt cause male characteristics but a personal God, 'father' excludes not feminine qualities but idea of personal God. Christian God is father to all men and women, relationship between father and child not men and women. 
  • Elizabeth Fiorenza- Daly's approach to Bible is too narrow, JC often broke sexist customs and supported womens struggles against patriarchal society.
    • first appeared to Mary Magdalene.
    • promoted pacafist values; 'turn the other cheek'.
    • no such thing as male and female, all are one.
  • Tertullian; (early christian) 'women are the devils gateway, women caused Jesus' sacrifice'.
  • Augustine; saw women as temptress to sin and defective beings.
  • Moses; kill all boys and nonvirgins but keep for yourself a virgin.
  • Catharine MacKannon; wrong to pay for sex- most want to leave the industry, are normally sexually abused as children (over 90%), it is not norma sex but 'do as i say' sex.
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G&T Questions


  • Trad Christ; patriarchal, art- serpent is female at fault for OS, patriarchy still present, women cannot enter altar, only male priesthood, men closer to God due to male authority.
  • Daly; christianity is irretrievably patriarchal and msyoginistic, must be abandoned.
  • Reuther; not intrinsically patriarchal, can&should be changed, 'saved from patriarchy', alternatives to male centric view- divine wisdom is female, Jesus didnt embrace patriarchy.

Christianity is essentially sexist?

  • Yes; God as male, 'head of woman is man' Corinthians, women= mothers, Daphne Hamspon; Christianity and feminism are not compatible, no female priests.
  • Not; societies changed, sexism isnt prevalent, depends on interpretation, Jesus moves away from patriarchy, Love your wife as christ loves the church, Simon chan; reading gender where it is irrelevant.
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G&T Questions

Can male saviour save women?

  • Yes; Jesus isnt just a gender, JC engaged with women, values women e.g. Mary Magdalene, more women than men attend church regularly, offers salvation to all 'the word becomes flesh' isnt male or female because gender is irrelevant.
  • No; may not be saved as women, JC is male incarnation of God which is patriarchal- if God is male male is God.

Can women develop genuine spirtituality?

  • Reuther; yes, JC showed divine wisdom& characteristics can be the way forward for Christianity.
  • Daly; women throw off all patriarchal lang and expectations through self-realisation 'all women should become wild, self procalimed hags'.
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LT&M; Liberation Theology

  • JC shows anger/ moves away from pacafism- entered temple and drove out those selling/ money changers etc- was righteous anger. 
    • Righteous indignation; anger than is correct/ about something wrong.
    • NT; Jesus was here by Got to 'release the opressed'.
  • LT is a theological movement, based on the poot, improving lives before academic. Latin American RCC priests in 1964- Gutierrez and Sabrino.
    • Paulo Freire- 'pedagogy of the opressed' basis for LT, education should transform society rather than move knowledge between generations. 
      • Orthopraxy- right practice before
      • Orthodoxy- right belief.
  • Kingdom of God; trad Christians- heaven, LT- something christians should work to achieve on Earth now, brings about revolution of those in poverty and oppression.
  • Gutierrez; 1. practical lib from poverty, 2. lib from sin through doctrine and faith. considered it wrong to evangelise poor and leave them in poverty. 
  • Bible veses supporting Loveration Theology;
    • Blessed are the poor in spirit for thiers is the kingdom of heaven.
    • Easier for camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the kingdom of God.
    • Let my people go so that they may worship me.
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LT&M; Marx

Karl Marx, German economic theorist and philosopher 'God is the opium of the people'- God is a projection of human wishes, laid foundations for socialism and communism and wrote communist manifesto.

  • Alienation and exploitation;
    • Alienation- people are dehumanised & unable to live fulfilling lives. the more people try to control the world, the less they feel in control. those who have taken more powers than others have created a class system and shaped a society that keeps people within it. capitalism divides workers wealth.
    • Exploitation- humans treated as objects and used as a means to an end.
    • 'Man is depressed both intellectually and physically to the level of a machine, dependent on the market price, you must work to live, so it is forced labour'. workers are used as a means to an end for profit, as companies globalise products are produced much more cheaply, driving down workers pay. 
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LT&M; LT and Marx to analyse social sin

  • Grew during cold war, capitalism and communism. S America many in poverty facing revolution (inevitable according to marx due to exploitation). LT- purpose of country developing is to inc human wellbeing, not wealth. 
  • Capitalism & deindustrialisation may lead to greater wealth for rich, workers alienated and exploited, institutionalised injustice, only the rich are educated for law/ poliotics. 
  • Social injustice- exploit and oppress humans, Christians have duty to act against sin in world.
  • Gutierrez; Christian duty to be involved in poliotics, churches should be voices against social injustice. Churches need to work to change lives for better, not support status quo. Class system is unjust, contrary to Bible teaching on equality. To allow class struggles to continue without opposition is to allow structrual sin. This link between Marx and LT is strongest.
  • LT dont accept Marx idea but do alienation and exploitation through class system and societal structures. LT are firmly on the side of the poor, a duty to act to liberate from opression. Capitalism has failed to satisfy basic needs of the poor. Socialism isnt perfect either, but is better for social inequality than capitalism. 
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LT&M; 'preferential option for the poor'

  • Father Pedro Arrupe 1968; JC assosciated with powerless & oppressed, judgement relies on Christians helping others- parable of sheep and goats. LT based on preferntial option for poor.
  • Jesuit Juan Segundo; human dignity at root of Christianity, all humanity is made in Gods image, Christians need to act to defend the poor and opressed as Jesus did- liberation from sin should come before social/political structures (opposite to Gutierrez). was not certain christians should change country social situation but they can help poor in whatever way they can.
  • basis for LT, mainstream in RCC. Pope John Paul II 1991 encyclical advancement of poor as an opportunity for moral, cultural and economic growth of all humanity. Segundo prioritised liberation from spiritual poverty before material. Pope Francis- Church of the poor.
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