Joints and Movement

Introduction to the skeleton and joints and movement

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  • Created by: Jade
  • Created on: 26-05-10 11:28

intro to skeleton

The average human adult has 206 bones in the body that are joined to ligaments and tendons to form a protective and supportive framework.

main bones of the bondy include:

sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapula, humerous, vertebral column, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, pelvis, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, talus, metatarsals, tarsals, calcaneus.

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Joints and articulating bones

wrist - carpals, ulna, radius

elbow - radius, ulna, humerous

radio ulna - radius, ulna, humerous

shoulder - humerous, scapula

vertebral column - axis, atlas, coccyx, sacrum, lumbar, cervical, thoracic

hip joint - femur, illium

knee joint - femur tibia

ankle joint - calcaneous, tibia, fibula

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classification of joints

fibrous/fixed joints - immovable

joints between the bones of the skull or joints between the sacrum and the coccyx at the bottom of the spine

catilaginous joints - slightly movable

joints between bodies of adjacent veterbrae in the cervical, thoracic and part of the lumbar spine

synovial joints - freely moveable

joints between the bones of the arms and the legs

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key words

Axial - long axis of the body, includes bones of the skull, spine and rib cage, functions are to support and carry body parts

appendicular - bone sof the upper and lower lumbs and their girdles thats join to the axial skeleton

articulation - bones that form a joint

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synovial joints

feature structure function

articular/hyaline cartilage - smooth carilage that is quite spongy and covers the ends of the bones at a joint - to prevent friction, absorb compression, protect bone ends form being crushed

two layered joint capsule - outer layer is tough and fibrous called fribrous capsule, inner layer is synovial membrane - strengthen joint so bones don't pull apart, to secrete synovial fluid

synovial fluid - slippery fluid like egg whites which is in the joint cavity - reduce friction between cartilage, to nourish cartilage, get rid of waste debris

ligament - band of strong fribrous tissue - connect bone to bone

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types of synovial joint

Ball and Socket - shoulder and hip - greatest range of movement

Hinge - elbow, knee and ankle - bending and straightening

pivot - radio ulna and atlas/axis joints - one bone roating about its axis

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