Synovial joints

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Synovial joints

  • Free movement - least stable
  • Joints between arms and legs
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Ligaments

  • Join bone to bone
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Synovial fluid

  • Lubricates, reducing friction
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Articulating cartilage

  • Acts as shock absorber
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Joint capsule

  • Fibrous tissue encasing joint
  • Aids stability
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Synovial membrane

  • Lines joint capsule
  • Secretes synovial fluid
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Bursa

  • Sac filled with synovial fluid between ligaments and tendons
  • Prevents friction
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Pads of fat

  • Provides a cushion between capsule and bone muscle
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Meniscus

  • Wedge of fibrocartilage
  • Makes joint more stable
  • Reduces wear and tear
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Fibrous joints

  • No movement
  • Most stable
  • skull
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Cartilaginous joints

  • Little movement
  • Stable
  • Joints between vertebrae
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Ball and socket synovial joint

  • Ball head shaped head articulates with a cup like socket
  • Great range of movement
  • Shoulder
  • Hip
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Hinge synovial joint

  • Uniaxial - only allows rotation
  • Elbow
  • Knee
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Pivot synovial joint

  • Uniaxial - only allows rotation
  • Neck
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Condyloid synovial joint

  • Shallower version of ball and socket
  • Wrist
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Gliding synovial joint

  • Flat surfaces glide past one another
  • Carpels
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Movements of synovial joints

  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Horizontal flexion
  • Horizontal extension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Rotation
  • Circumduction
  • Pronation
  • Supination
  • Lateral flexion
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Plantar flexion
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