Jewish studies



life after death


reward and punishment


grace after meals

ethics of fathers

sects of jews


war of independence

uganda plan

nuremberg laws



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  • Created by: lauren
  • Created on: 30-04-11 12:17

Rosh Hashana

Judgement day

New year

Blow shofar- tekiah, teruah, tekiah

We eat sweet foods to symbolise a sweet new year

fish head on the table symbolises the head of the year

tashlich-throw away your sins

Kapparot- wave chicken around your head

Wear white- to symbolise purity

Rosh hashanah is the anniversary of the creation of humans

1st-2nd tishrei

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Yom Kippur

Day of atonant 

10th tishrei

assert yemai teshuva- 10 days of repenting

25 hour fast

dont bath

no marriage relationships

have an easy day

no leather shoes

yamin noraim- days of fear

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Time for rejoicing

live in the succah

succah- a reminder of what the jews lived in when they were coming out of egypt



avarot- willow branch

hadassim- myrtle branches

hold them all together to symbolise the different types of jews

succot last 8 days, 7 days in isreal

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14th nissan

8 days, 7 days in israel

chametz not aloud- take out of the house

eat matzah instead of bread

have a seder 

karpas, maror, matzah, horoset, egg and salt water

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6th nissan

celebrate the giving of the torah on mount saini

1 day in israel, 2 days in diaspra

cant work on shavuot (melacha)

traditional to read a poem called akdamut

read the meggilat of ruth

eat dairy foods on shavuot

custom to have flowers in the synagogue- mount sain was blossemed with flowers

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simchat torah

Finish reading the torah

restart torah readings

celebrated by dancing with the torah

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shemini atzeret- 8th day assembly

extra day of chag- final chance to get close to g-d after yom kippur, rosh hashanah and succot

major festivals- written in torah, eg yom kippur

minor festivals- not written in torah, eg chanukah

shalosh regalim- three foot festivals. 3 festivals that needed a visit to the temple- pesach, shavuot, succot

pilgramige- religious journey to a religious place

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light candles to bring in shabbat

7th day g-d rested (shabbat is on the 7th day of the week)

2 challat on table- symbolise the 2 portions of manna that fell in desert

custom to overflow the wine cup

custom for father to bless the children

candles- light then to symbolise the 39 melachot

spices- we revive ourselves by smelling spices

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descendent of king david

messiah must rebuild the temple

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life after death

two worlds- physical and spiritual

physical world brings spiritual world into it

every human has a spiritual side- this remains living even after the physical body has stopped

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comes from torah

authored by g-d

4 sections

first line of the shema is monotheism-beleive in 1 g-d

1st paragraph-  a) love g-d with your heart, soul and might

b) educate children

c) teffilin- on arm against heart and on head


has shema in it

if it cracks its no longer kosher

right hand of door

has to be checked 2 times every 7 years

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2nd paragraph of shema

reward and punishment

judaism beleives correct actions are rewarded, incorrect actions may be punished

rewards and punishments may take a physical/spiritual form

judaism beleives g-d is merciful

rewards and punishments are given with peoples circumstances in mind

israel rewards and punishments

rewards- rain for isreal, good crops, enough food

punishments- withold rain, poor crops, not in control of land

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3rd paragraph of shema


commandment of tzit-zit

reminding the wearer of the 613 commandments

only need to be worn in daylight hours

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standing prayer

said 3 times a day- shaharit, mincha, maariv

19 blessings

praise, ask and thank g-d

bracha 1- praising

bracha 2- forgivness

bracha 3- health

bracha 4- peace- this is a thankyou in advance for the peace in massianic times

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grace after meals

said after eating bread

bracha 1- thank g-d for giving food. author: moses

bracha 2- thanking for food and land of israel. author: Joshua

bracha 3- thanking for food, land of israel, jerusalem and the temple. author: King David and king solomon

King david chose Jerusalem

King solomon built the temple

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ethic of the fathers

mishna 1

1) chain of tradition- all ethics have a tradition that goes back to the begining of the jewish religion

2) be deliberate in judgment- be in control of yourself

make a fence around the torah- protect torah

mishna 14

'if i am not for myself, who will be for me?'- have to complete the task that i have been set

'if i am only for myself, what am i?'- have to look out for others

'if not now, when?'- all responsibilities done straight away

mishna 18

truth, justice and peace

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sects of jews

orthodex- remain true to religion

non orthodox- jews who interpret torah

haskalah- enlightlement

religion vs science

science began to change religious views

orthodox saw this as a threat

non orthodox saw this as a oppurtunity

ultra orthodox- live amongst themselves.. eg no modern technology

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other sects

neo orthodoxy- remain traditional whilst being a port of the modern world

modern orthodoxy- allowed people to look at their orthodox life

if the rules are from g-d we cant change them- g-d is omnisient

non orthodox

- they beleive that not all the rules are from g-d

- they beleive that some of the torah was written by humans

- non orthodox humans are allowed to alter the interpretations of the torah

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chasidick and lithuanian

chasidick and lithuanian have different traditions

lithuanian- the most important thing is torah

chasidick- they get close to g-d by serving him, and they perform mitzvot

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reform, liberal and masorti


1) make jewish religion more relavent

2) old style traditions were seen as irrelavent

3) stopped kosher laws


1) each individual jew has the right to decide what to do


1) keep traditions

2) they question weather torah was written by g-d

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conditions were terrible

people had to exist off the same number of caleries as a peice of bread, per day

disease and death became the norm

in warsaw ghetto, 500,00 people lived in an area about 1 square mile

nazis gave the impression the ghettos would give the jews the ability to be free

head of the ghettos were the JUDENRAAT (jewish councilers)- they had to carry out nazi orders

ghettos aloud...

1) nazis to round up the jews

2) cut the jews off from the rest of society

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genocide- mass murder of a particular group

hitler- elected into power- he promised a solution to economic problems

hindenberg- president

SS- hitlers bodyguards

the SS shot nazi's who feard hitler

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war of independence

when israel became a country in 1948 the arabs tried to destroy it

the arabs invaded a day after israel became a state

the war lasted 9 months

6000 jewish soldiers killed

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uganda plan

britain offered jews uganda as a homeland

Herzl was in favour of the plan

plan was rejected

Herzl died a few months later

herzls dream

1) no army

2) no polititians 

3) arabs and jews equal


1) standing army in israel

2) israel=democracy

3) arabs and jews are still not equal

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nuremberg laws

1) no jews and german marriages

2) proceedings can be initiated only by the state prosecuter

3) jews cant employ germans under the age of 45

4) jews cant fly with the german colours

5) any one who doesnt follow laws will be sent to prism

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nuremberg trials

after war only important nazi's were caught and put on trial

10 of them were sentenced to death

many nazi's ran away to countries that wouldnt prosecute them.. eg south america and egypt

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motivation to be zionist

zionism- movement that supports the idea of the jewish land

political zionism- supporting the idea that jews run their own country

cultual zionism- people who beleive judaism is not a religion but a culture

zionist congress- zionists who decide issues facing zionism

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post holocaust european jewry

75-90% european jews were killed in holocaust

some survivers went to USA, others in refugees

post world war 2 palestine

British allowed a small amount of jews in palestine

jews who tried to get into palestine illegally were captured by british and sent to turkey

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1967 war- israel and syria. Israel attacked them. In 3 hrs isreal destroyed the egyption airforce

outcomes of war- israel gained the gaza strip, saini desert, golden heights

after the war the arabs refused to make peace

1973-yom kippur war. surprise attack by egypt and syria, lasted 3 days 

1976- raidon entebbe, israel rescued over 100 jewish hostages from uganda

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covenant- agreement between 2 parties which involves both sides promising something to eachother

covenants with abraham- brit millah (covenant of the flesh)

g-d's promise- to ensure a nation comes from abraham, and give the land of israel to abrahams descendents

abrahams promise- all male children will be circumsised at 8 days old

Brit bein habaterim- covenant between names

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i have done so many!

saul green

wow this is amazing ! keep it up 


much better!


its awful


your notes have taught me bares 

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