Chapter 1 – Jane’s childhood & intro to the Reeds.
§‘rock stand up alone in a sea of billow’
- Portrays Jane’s isolation and independence
§ ‘Habitually obedient to John.’
- Normal for her to be fearful of him; seen as below him and this exemplifies a patriarchal structure.
§ ‘bad animal’
- The family perceive her as an animal or even lower; links to class and status.
- This again links to the idea of her being lower than them, class and status.
§ ‘all the house belongs to me’
- Again, exemplifying a patriarchal structure; belittles even Mrs Reed, despite her age and relation to him.
Chapter 2 – Jane is sent to the red room.
§ you’re less than a servant’
- Links to Jane’s dependency and class.
§ ‘I resisted all the way’
- Portrays Jane’s independence and defiance.
§ ‘like nobody there’
- Highlights further her isolation.
§ ‘virulent passions’
- Shows her defiance, but also links to Adele; her passion is gone after
she leaves school and this exemplifies a societal structure stuck in a cycle.
§ 'God will punish her.'
Chapter 3 – After results of red room.
§ ‘the plumage of the bird […] seemed strangely faded’
- Certain freedom comes to late and Jane feels that it does not fit her “class”
§ ‘I should like to belong to poor people’
- Jane is hypocritical here; still sees herself as above.
§ ‘cannot care for such a little toad’ (said by Mrs Reed)
- Still referred to in an animalistic manner.
§ ‘entrance into a new life’
- Jane sees hope in Lowood and in education; non-stereotypical of a
woman in this era.
§ ‘Georgiana would be more moving in the same condition’
- Sympathy received relies on class, status and looks.
Chapter 4 – Meeting of Brocklehurst.
§ ‘she [Mrs Reed] had drawn a more marked line of separation between me and her own children’ § ‘once attempted chastisement; but as I instantly turned against him’
- This shows from very early stages within the novel that Jane will not
conform to the patriarchal structure and be the product of a stereotype.
§ ‘They are not fit to associate with me’ (Jane on Reed children)
- Portrays further her defiance.
§ ‘Georgiana sat on a high stool’
- It is significant that this a ‘high stool’ because it exemplifies her status
§ ‘Do you know where the wicked go after death?’
- In this sense, Brocklehurst uses religion to enforce discipline through fear.
Chapter 5 – Jane goes to Lowood.
- This links directly to gothic conventions within the novel
§ ‘I was carried’
- Novel is bildungsroman and so her progression in strength is seen; goes
from being carried to the carrier
§ ‘she touched my cheek gently with her forefinger’
- First time within novel that Jane is shown affection
§ ordering of ‘bread and cheese’
- This portrays Ms Temple’s early unwillingness to conform to the
patriarchal structure, even though like Jane, she eventually does
§ ‘she neither wept nor blushed.’ (Helen)
- Again, a character is presented who is unwilling to conform and shows defiance
Chapter 6 – Jane and Helen.
§ ‘the Bible bids us return good for evil’
- Jane admires Helen for her patience and goodness; something which Jane lacks.
§ ‘Heathens and savage tribes hold that doctrine; but Christians and civilised nations disown it.’
- Helen discussing the applicable terms of punishment; can be seen as post-colonial.
Chapter 7 – Brocklehurst brands Jane a liar.
§not to accustom them to habits of luxury and indulgence, but to render them hardy, patient’
- Here, Brocklehurst is highlighting the typical Victorian societal structure in regards to females characters.
§ ‘that girl’s hair must be cut off entirely’ § ’light tresses, elaborately curled’
- These two quotes portray the differences of society based on lower class (first) and middle class (second) This shows directly that different rules apply based purely on class; even though both are equal.
§ ‘not a member of the true flock, but evidently an interloper and an alien.’
- This identifies Jane as an outsider, non-conformer and non-stereotypical.
§ ‘Such is the imperfect nature of man!’
- Bronte is acknowledging the imperfections of man and accepts natures role in this.
Chapter 8 – Ms Temple and clearing of name.
§‘whom I truly love’
- For the first time in her life, Jane is discovering love for others; Helen and Ms Temple.
§ ‘I had meant to be so good’ § ‘teach me drawing’
- Only form of education women had; were taught to be wives, not professionals.
§ ‘my child’ (Miss Temple to Jane)
- First time Jane is accepted as someone’s family.
§ ‘I would not now have exchanged Lowood with all its privations for Gateshead’
Chapter 9 – Helen dies.
- First time Jane talks of freedom.
§ ‘pure society’
- Helen is described as this. This suggests that Helen embodies Bronte’s ideal of society’s citizens. When she dies, so does morality.
§ ‘By dying young, I shall escape great sufferings’
- Helen’s idea of suffering here could be referring to conforming to society’s ideals; by not dying young, Jane’s innocence is inevitably destructed and she is forced to conform and face the corruption of society.
§ ‘she kissed me’ (Helen to Jane)
- Early signs of affection that build Jane as a character and enable her to understand love.
§ Jane marks Helen’s grave with a ‘grey marble tablet’
- This portrays her significance not only to Jane, but to the novel as a whole.
Chapter 10 - Jane sees Bessie & becomes governess.
§ ‘my insignificant existence’ § ‘strictness, comfort with economy, compassion with uprightness’
- Lowood is microcosm of society; Brocklehurst is overpowering PM, students are constituents. Eventually it is made right with balance, like society should be; Bronte’s ideal.
§ ‘she married, removed with her husband’ (Miss Temple)
- She has to conform, it’s the beginning of the cycle.
§ ‘I had my advertisement written.’
- Unusual for Victorian woman; portrays Jane’s defiance and independence.
§ ‘they will never make much of him.’ (John Reed) § ‘takes her back to Gateshead’ VS ‘new life in the unknown environs’
- Bronte is juxtaposing stereotypical women (Bessie) with non-stereotypical (Jane) here.
Chapter 11 – First night at Thornfield.
§ ‘very chill and vault-like air’ (description of Thornfield)
- Like a prison, entrapped.
§ Lexical field; ‘bright little’ , ‘gay blue chintz’ , ‘pleasant’
- All positive towards new beginning.
§ ‘I sometimes regretted that I was not handsomer.’
- Victorian patriarchal system/feminism.
- Adele is energetic and vibrantly described from her intro to novel.
§ ‘the laugh was as tragic, as a preternatural laugh.’
Chapter 12 – Meet Mr Rochester.
§ ‘Millions are condemned to a stiller doom than mine’
- Here, Bronte is discussing either females on the lower class.
§ ‘women feel just as men feel.’ § ‘He laid a heavy hand on my shoulder.’
- Jane is helping Rochester; thus he is the dependent, breaking all boundaries.
§ ‘You must just stand to one side’ (Rochester)
- Portrays masculinity; men vs women
§ ‘moon was waxing bright’
- Gothic convention
§ ‘Had he been handsome […] I should not have dared to stand thus questioning him.’
- They’re equals and looks award places in society.
Chapter 13 – Jane’s second meeting with Rochester.
§ ‘he was not in the mood to notice us’ - Rochester is in control here; exemplifies the patriarchal structure. § ‘But what do you think?’
- Interested in her mind.
§ Teases her about being a ‘witch’ § ‘he was tired of our company, and wished to dismiss us.’
- Exemplifies the control of patriarchal society.
- Gothic convention.
Chapter 14 – Meeting with Rochester again.
§ ‘different to what I had seen him look before; not quite so stern – much less gloomy.’
- This is the point in which the reader begins to see change within Rochester and he gets closer to Jane.
§ ‘you are not pretty any more than I am handsome’
- Portrays equality.
§ ‘you puzzled me’ (Rochester to Jane)
- Her mind is what draws him to her.
§ ‘subordinate’ (Jane)
- She recognises her lower place
§ ‘the Lowood constraint still clings to you somewhat’
- Jane is slowly changing in numerous ways; coming out of her given shell.
Chapter 15 – Learn of Adele and Rochester’s past.
§ ‘you never felt love.’ (Rochester to Jane) § ‘it is a peculiar mind; it Is a unique one.’ § ‘He held out his hand; I gave him mine.’
- Pivotal point at which their love becomes explicit, in a plain way.
§ ‘billows of trouble rolled under surges of joy.’
- Jane herself knows that it cannot be.
§ ‘I was left in total darkness.’
- Gothic convention, but also portrays that Jane feels she is in darkness without Rochester.
§ ‘I believed he was naturally a man on better tendencies..’ (pg 175)
- Point in which the novel becomes more of the romantic genre.
Chapter 16 – Rochester goes away to Blanche Ingram
§ ‘I had more colour and more flesh […] because I had brighter hopes’ (pg 186)
- How all women should be in society; portrays the benefits of independence for women.
§ ‘meeting him in an argument without fear or uneasy constraint.’
- This highlights Jane’s defiance, but also their equality despite gender.
§ ‘Blanche, an accomplished lady of rank.’
- Ironic; Jane is falling to society’s ideas of an accomplished woman. This excludes the idea that an accomplished women requires independence, intelligence etc.
§ ‘She and Mr Rochester sung a duet.’
- Highlights the equality between those of the same class.
§ ‘Ingram was certainly the queen.’
- Above Jane, in regards to the hierarchy.
Chapter 17 – Rochester back; Jane forced to mix.
§Good-night, my –’
- Exemplifies their forbidden love and highlights the oppressions of males.
§ ‘He is not of your order; keep to your caste.’
- Caste is the idea of a closed social class; once born into, one stays there for their entire life. This is an example of Marxist literary criticism.
§ ‘ladie’s silvery accents’
- Idea of silver suggests upper class, in comparison to Jane.
§ ‘flock of white plumy birds’ (motif, ladies)
- Refers to the freedom that Jane doesn’t feel in Chapter 3 when Bessie gives her the plate.
§ Governesses are described as an ‘incompetency and caprice’ § Rochester is concerned for her; ‘And a little depressed. What about?’
Chapter 18 - Mr Mason and gypsy.
§she looks too stupid.’ (Blanche about Jane)
- Assumptions made based on class and job.
§ ‘her mind was poor.’ (Jane on Blanche)
- This relates to Rochester’s love for Jane because he loves her ‘peculiar mind’ and thus, finds Blanche uninteresting.
§ ‘her rank and connections suited her.’
- Constant referrals to rank acknowledge that there is a hierarchy within society.
§ ‘his friends dislike of the burning heats…’ (pg 228) § ‘A shockingly ugly creature…’
- With hindsight, both can be analysed as a post-colonial reading.
§ All ‘tall’ in comparison to Jane; she is belittled or below them.
Chapter 19 – Jane meets gypsy.
§‘Why don’t you tremble?’ (Rochester) § ‘highest and sweetest give to man, keeps far away from you.’
- Fits in with the idea of castes and Jane being a suppressed female.
§ ‘endowed with gifts of rank and fortune.’ (ladies) § ‘help me.’ (Rochester)
- Again, Jane is portrayed as the defiant female because he is dependent on her.
§ ‘if not his person, at least his purse.’
- Money is of importance in Victorian society.
§ This chapter is the most significant point in their expression of love.
Chapter 20 – Mr Mason gets attacked.
§ ‘She sucked the blood.’ § ‘like a tigress’ § ‘wild beast’
- Bertha or ‘Grace Poole’ is only described in animalistic manners.
§‘I want you.’ (Rochester) § ‘Savage’
- Again, with hindsight this can be analysed as a post-colonial reading.
§ ‘don’t hesitate to take a place by my side, do you?’
- Here, there is an obvious class divide. However, Rochester because they are equal and expects Jane to stand equally beside him.
§ Rochester discusses his love for her morality that causes her defiance to instruction.
Chapter 21 – Death of Mrs Reed.
§ ‘he ruined his health and his estate’ (John)
- Proof that wealth doesn’t equal status.
§ ‘the loss of money and fear of poverty were quite breaking her down.’ (Mrs Reed)
- Links to significance of class.
§ Blanche refers to Jane as ‘that person’
- Not even worthy of a name.
§Rochester needs Jane; so urges her ‘not to advertise’ §Uncle Reed was the one to ‘nurse’ Jane.
- Role reversal/failure of the patriarchal society.
§Georgiana ‘you cry out that you are ill-treated, neglected, miserable.’
- Proof that worth doesn’t equal happiness.
Chapter 22 – Returns to Thornfield.
§‘cousin Jane Eyre’
- Finally accepted as part of the family.
§ ‘But what is so headstrong as youth?’
- Links to purity, defiance and an uncorrupted mind.
§ ‘Janian reply’
- Exemplifies her individualism, but Rochester understands her.
§ ‘he had spoken of Thornfield as my home.’
- Jane finally has a home and family.
§ Rochester refer to Jane as Adele’s ‘English mother’ (French translation)
- This links Jane to part of a family; something she struggles to find throughout the novel.
Chapter 23 – The proposal.
§ Rochester calls her ‘Janet’
- Trying to mould her into upper-class.
§ ‘jasmine, pink and rose’ , ‘skies so pure, suns so radiant.’
-Heavy romantic imagery and description.
§ Despite the proposal, Jane still refers to him as ‘master.’ § ‘I summon you as my wife.’
- The use of the imperative suggests that Rochester still holds significant power over Jane, despite them supposedly being equals.
§ ‘I am a free human being with independent will.’
- Again, Jane portrays her defiance here.
§ The orchard tree splits down the middle.
- This suggests that they are not supposed to be together or that they are still unequal.
Chapter 24 – Wedding planning and conflict.
§ ‘I am your plain, Quaker governess’ VS. ‘superb pink satin’
- Jane accepts her position within society, but Rochester tries to mould her.
§ ‘I believe she thought I had forgotten my station.’ § ‘Equality of position and fortune is often advisable.’
- Fairfax reminds of class divide.
§ ‘Rochester refers to Jane’s independence as ‘governessing slavery.’ § ‘I was not born for a different destiny than the rest of my species.’ § This chapter is a deciding point for Jane; does she conform or continue with her independence.
Chapter 25 – Night before wedding and veil.
§ Jane refers to belongings as ‘hers’ rather than ‘mine’
- Completely disassociates herself with the new life.
§ ‘I wanted you, but don’t boast.’
- Jane still upholds some defiance.
§ ‘your life, sir.’ , ‘aristocratic tastes.’
- Clear division in class between Jane and Rochester. She understands this, whilst he doesn’t.
§ ‘It was white and straight.’ (Bertha)
- The use of ‘white’ portrays innocence within Bertha, which could link to the idea that she went made after being locked away.
§‘red eyes’ , ‘it was a savage face.’
- This is an animalistic perspective of Bertha, but can also link to a post-colonial reading because of the description ‘savag.e.’
§ ‘She seemed the emblem of my past life.’ (Jane about Adele)
- Links to the idea of a Victorian patriarchal society cycle.
Chapter 26 – Wedding and Bertha Mason.
§ ‘image of a stranger’
- Jane doesn’t recognise herself and is slowly changing.
§ ‘lean on me’ (Rochester)
- She’s becoming dependent on him, like he is on her earlier in the novel.
§ Jane reacts ‘mechanically.’ § ‘my love lost, my hope quenched and my faith death-stricken.’ § ‘Creole’ (Bertha)
- Post-colonial reading; this could explain why Rochester hid her away in relation to historical context.
§ ‘Bertha Mason is mad.’
- This is true, but the real question is why.
§ ‘the master.’
- Completely disassociates herself with the situation and even more with Rochester.
Chapter 27 – Bertha story and Jane leaves.
§ ‘Conscience, turned tyrant, held Passion by the throat.’
- Personification; Jane is being logical, rather than ruled by passion.
§ ‘I was supported by Mr Rochester.’ juxtaposed to ‘Mr Rochester I must leave you.’ § ‘I pity you.’ (Jane to Rochester)
- Whilst she is lower than him in class, she is higher than him in status.
§ Rochester refers to Bertha as a ‘filthy burden’
- Could again, be a post-colonial reading.
§ ‘to live familiarly with inferiors is degrading.’
- This is ironic of Rochester because in the eyes of society, Jane is inferior to him.
§ ‘we were born to strive.’ (Jane)
Chapter 28 – Ends up with Rivers family.
§Jane is stuck at ‘Whitcross’ which is ironically a cross-road. § ‘I have no relative but the universal mother: Nature.’ § ‘outcast as I was.’
- This links Jane to Bertha and the idea that the latter is her antithesis.
§ ‘appeased by this hermit’s meal.’
- Crossroads for Jane because she is currently stuck between classes. This chapter is the mid-point of her change and she must decide which way to go.
§ ‘I thank God.’
- Jane falls on God at this point in the novel; Bronte was a clergyman’s daughter.
Chapter 29 – Jane learns more about Rivers family.
§ ‘she would always be plain.’
- Jane cannot change class; it’s not in her nature.
§ ‘Rivers’ are the antithesis of Reed family. § ‘you ought not to consider poverty a crime.’
- Poverty cannot be considered wrong if caste exists.
§ At this point in the novel, Jane is ‘absolutely without home.’ § ‘found a paradise’ at Thornfield. § Jane is referred to as a ‘half-frozen bird’ and the sisters want to look after her.
Chapter 30 – St John finds a position for Jane.
§ ‘we agreed equally well.’
- There is equality within their relationship to a certain extent; if not involving wealth then at least within their character.
§ Jane’s ‘society gave them unusual pleasure.’ (Diane and Mary)
- This highlights the differences in culture between Jane and the sisters, who should all be of equal class and status.
§ St John’s smile is ‘pleased and deeply gratified.’
- He accepts her life as a governess and is grateful for it; juxtaposed to Rochester, who tried to change her.
§ Jane’s habits have become ‘refined.’
Chapter 31 – Rosamond and St John.
§ ‘God directed me to the right choice.’
- Links to historical/religious content and belief that the right choice is family and equality.
§ ‘The birds were singing their last strains.’
- Again, motif. This suggests that independence and freedom is being lost.
§ ‘the power to make our own fate.’
- This link with Bronte’s message that nobody is bound by gender, status etc.
§ ‘I saw his solemn eye melt with fire.’ (Jane about St John) § ‘She held out her hand. He just touched it.’
- Unlike Jane and Rochester, this love is confined rather than forbidden.
§ ‘I was an outcast, a beggar, a vagrant; now I have acquaintance, a home, a business.’
Chapter 32 – St John confesses love.
§ ‘Their amazement at me, my language..’ (pg. 442)
- Links to the idea of status being earned and a changing of feminism; girls are finding amazement in the non-stereotypical.
§ ‘I taught the elements of grammar, geography…’ (pg. 442)
- Breaking stereotypes within childhood.
§ ‘she knew her power.’ (Rosamond)
- Role reversal because Rosamond has power over St John.
§ ‘I would far rather be where I am than in any high family in the land.’
- Content with the happiness of family; Jane has found the true meaning of love and happiness for herself.
§ St John acknowledges that Jane is ‘not timid’ and sees her defiance. § ‘my previous history, if known, would make a delightful romance.’
Chapter 33 – Jane’s true identity revealed.
§ ‘she is so good-natured.’ (St John about Rosamond)
- This is why Jane cannot marry him; Rosamond is equal to St John, unlike her.
§ ‘the country has been scoured far and wide.’
- Portrays the extent of Rochester’s care and love for Jane, which is often forgotten.
§ ‘’I! – rich?’
- Jane can now finally be equal to Rochester in the eye’s of society.
§ ‘the connection complete’
- Most importantly, Jane finally has a family.
§ ‘it would please and benefit me to have five thousand pounds; it would torment and oppress me to have twenty thousand.’ § ‘the place it would enable you to take in society.’
- Jane doesn’t conform here and is more interested in family and happiness than expectations.
§ ‘I don’t want to marry, and never shall marry.’ § ‘I will not be regarded in the light of a mere money speculation.’
Chapter 34 – Jane refuses marriage proposal.
§ ‘she can bear a mountain blast, or a shower’
- St John wants to marry Jane because he believes that she would make a good wife, not because he loves her. This goes against everything Jane goes against and also breaks stereotypes based on historical/social context.
§ ‘you are docile, diligent, disinterested, faithful, constant and courageous.’
- This highlights that St John does not fully understand Jane as a person and doesn’t recognise the ‘fire’ in her.
§ ‘if I join St John, I abandon half myself.’
- Jane is not willing to give up her independence for a love that does not involve passion; with Rochester, she gains another half to herself, but with St John she loses.
§ ‘I scorn the counterfeit sentiment you offer.’
- Exemplifies further that Jane believes in true love.