Italian Unification

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Biggest obstacle to nationalism 1815-70 influence

Point-Gioberti a Piedmontese writer pushed for the unification of Italy in the form of a federation of states in which the Pope would be the President in 1843. Example-His book-On the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians-sold 5000.Explanation-Gioberti believed that the Pope could significantly advance the cause of Italian unification, therefore the catholic Church wasn't viewed as a hindrance because Gioberti believed the Pope would be pivotal to creating a unified Italy Point-Due to call from the nationalists and liberals the Pope introduced reforms, probably to prevent the people's discontent from fuelling a revolution.Example-March 1847 Issued a law ending the censorship of publications. Explanation-This encouraged unity as the Pope's reform in one of the most corrupt and oppressive states in Italy showed all Italians that reform was possible in their states as long as they continually pressured their leaders Point-The Pope did however hinder unification as his views become more conservative as time went on. Example-1864 Syllabus of Errors is published which condemned “ Porgress, liberalism and modern civilisation”.Explanation-Divided many Italians hindering unity as sharing Catholism was a point of unity however now that the Church condemned Italian unity many people had to choose between their faith and their country. Similarly the 1870 Papal Infallibility (The Pope could grant any law and all Catholics would have to follow it or risk going against God as the Pope spoke for God) can be used for the Example above and the Point and Explanation can remain the same Point-The lack of international allies also hindered Italian unity as the military force of Austria couldn't be challenged.Example-Revolutionaries had tried to form an alliance with France however Napoleon declined because he feared going to war with Austria would ruin France's diplomatic relations with the other European countries.Explanation-The strongest state Piedmont was unable to defeat Austria therefore the unequipped and untrained revolutionaries stood no chance therefore Austrian intervention also posed a significant hindrance to nationalism

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