islam key wrds


means a truth which never varies.

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Absolutist: -

- a rule that is true in all situations.

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- is when an object fulfils its potential and becomes something else

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a statement that is true by definition. No evidence is needed

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Apparent Good:

a faulty judgement as a result of the misuse of reason or misunderstanding of Divine Law.

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A priori knowledge:

is knowledge gained from logical reasoning, wholly independent on sense experience.

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Categorical imperative:

an absolute and universal sense of moral duty which directs humans to the right actions.

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dependant on something else for its being.

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an acceptance of the Genesis account of the creation of the universe as factual truth.


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Deductive arguments:

depending on logic not experience, if the premises are true then the conclusion is proved.

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is a belief in an impersonal creator god.

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Efficient cause:

Aristotle used this to explain how something happens, the agent which brings something about.

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Empirical knowledge:

is knowledge gained from the senses

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Epistemic distance: -

a distance in knowledge or awareness.

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Final cause

Aristotle used this to mean the purpose of something

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The inconsistent triad

means that a perfectly good and all-knowing God cannot exist at the same time as evil.

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Inductive arguments:

can’t prove but try to persuade by providing evidence from human experiences in support of the conclusion.

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Infinite regression:

Things continuing back forever are called infinite regression

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Infinite regression:

Things continuing back forever are called infinite regression

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refers to something which logically must be true

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of or relating to essence or the nature of being

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is something which is an initial assumption.

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Posteriori argument:

depend on some kind of evidence to support them.


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a characteristic or attribute of something

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Prior arguments:

is like a deductive argument, which is proven through logic to prove a point and doesn’t need evidence.

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someone who is inclined to doubt what he or she is told or wishes to suspend judgement unless there is certainty: someone who is keen to point out the limitations of knowledge.


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Summum bonum:

is the state of supreme good when virtue and happiness come together.

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the subconscious set of moral controls given us by outside influences like the rules of society.

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justification of God. It is an attempt by philosophers to reconcile (settle) the goodness and omnipotence of God with the existence of evil. Augustine and Irenaeus are two key scholars.

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completely separate and out of his creation

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people who use the Bible to prove the existence of God and creation.

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