• Created by: Banisha.
  • Created on: 13-04-18 12:37


  • pragmatic religion - does not indugle in metaphysical speculation, there is no worship of a God 
  • Buddhists reject arguments for the existence of God - there can be no such thing as an uncaused cause 
  • everything the Buddha taught was based on his own observations, the way things really are 
  • there are 300-500 million Buddhists around the world
  • the Buddha achieved enlightenment - nirvana - through his own efforts
  • a Buddha is born when Buddhism dies out - there were 6 previous Buddha's -THERAVADIN 
  • one Buddha is waiting in Tushita heaven called Maitreya 
  • Jakarta Tales are moral stories based on the Buddha's previous lives 
  • these stories illustrate specific qualities and powers that come from enlightenment - The Pali Canon, Lotus Sutra, Heart Sutra 
  • The Buddha is not supernatural - doesn't have material things/ finds peace and happiness from within , he is an ordinary being like all of us 
  • the Buddha reintroduced the Dhamma to societis where it does not exist

RICHARD GOMBRICH - time has no beginning or end - buddhist teachings were not invented by the Buddha 

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  • dharma is considered an eternal truth - teachings are not personal to the Buddha 'timeless, univeral truth' -buddha rediscovered when it was lost 
  • this is part of the THREE REFUGES 
  • it upholds the natural order of the universe / indicates all factors of existence
  • has three levels of meaning - words of the Buddha, practise of his teachings, attainment of enlightenment 


  • dhamma is not just doctrines but teaching, practise and enlightenment
  • Buddhadasa Bhikkhu taught the word dhamma has a fourfold meaning - it encorporates the phenomenal world, laws of nature, duties perfomed in accordance to nature and results of fulfilling these duties - understood in the Veda's
  • Buddhadasa taught dhamma has 6 attributes - taught by the Buddha, all of us can realise our own efforts through the dhamma, it is timeless and present through every moment, it is open to verification so it does not need to be accepted on faith, it allows us to enter nirvana and it is known only through personal, intuitive, insight. 
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  • refers to both teachings of the Buddha and realisation of the Buddha 
  • Zen - presents some aspects of the true nature of reality 
  • 'the three turnings of the dharma wheel' refers to 3 relevations of teachings 
  • the first turning - the historical Buddha delivered his first sermon on the four noble truths, second turningg - perfection of wisdom teaching/ sunyata, third turning - Buddha nature is the fundamental unity of existence
  • [manifestations of reality] HEART SUTRA 'all dharamas are emptiness' - means all dharamas are empty [ sunyata ] of self essence 

THE DHARMA BODY - DHARMAKAYA - truth body [in both Mayhayana/Theravadin

  • is an unity of all things and beings, unmanifested, beyond existence and non-existence 
  • dharma is both essential nature of reality/ teachings and practises that enable realisation of that essential nature 
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  • offers a model for Buddhists to follow
  • teaches ways of life to avoid
  • values how to adopt and behave with others
  • Buddhists do not pray to the Buddha for help but give thanks / gratitude 
  • Buddhas statue is entirely symbolic
  • images of the Buddha are reminders of his life, achievement, convey a sense of peace, serenity, dignity that can inspire mediation 
  • images also inspire gratitude for the care he showed in sharing his wisdom with humanity 
  • stories illustrate specific powers, values and qualities 
  • sasana - institutions of Buddhism 
  • enlightenment brings three things - supreme wisdom, boundless compassion and love and the power to free beings from suffering 
  • we should discover worthiness and realise its ultimate significance - progress to attain Buddhood
  • primary purpose of life is to end suffering - humans suffer because we continually strive after things that do not give us lasting happiness - we hold onto things that do not last which causes sorrow 
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  • buddhist reject arguments for the existence of God on logical grounds
  • Jakarta Tales - Buddha the king of monkeys - story refers to money king sacrificing his own life for the sake of others - shows that the Buddha will do anything to save people/ shows committment 
  • buddhist path to enlightenment remains possible to everyone
  • bodh Gaya temple - where the Buddha became enlightened 
  • extraordinary events of the Buddha's life is marked by earthquakes or blossoms out of season for example his birth, his victory over Mara and his passing away 
  • THERAVADINS - refer to small number of heavens - pure realms where only advanced beings can go ie Tushita heaven and heaven of 33 gods where the Buddha's mother dwells - the gods die and take rebirth in another form of existence 
  • the Buddha was a prince but left it all - doesn't have material things and finds peace and happiness from within 
  • buddhists believe stories portray important qualities, values/ powers of what the Buddha is capable of, no stories are less relevant 
  • the buddha helps towards the understanding of the religion - he is an aspect of Buddhism 
  • Abhidhamma - philisophical teachings of Buddhism / scriptures
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  • suffering - DUKKHA - cause by cravings/ desires [TANHA]
  • everything ends 
  • aim of Buddhism is to let go of greed, extinguish ignorance, understand the way things truly are
  • this is achieved by following the teachings through our own efforts/actions
  • believe ignorance and delusion causes us to be continuallu reborn [SAMSARA] world of suffering known as the cycle of rebirth - this is a constant cycle - 'eternal wandering' 
  • the way out of the cycle is to eliminate greed, hatred, delusion, selfishness by training our minds with meditation and learning the truth
  • ULTIMATE AIM IS NIRVANA 'blowing out and extingushing fires of greed, hatred and delusion'
  • perfect peace, happines, wisdom, inner calm, state the buddha achieved = enlightenment
  • being reborn again shows a sense of imprisonment - solution to samsara is to have a clear mind, let go of material things and accept that we can survive with showing good/ moral acts of kindness
  • humans can have a better chance to adapt and change the way we live, humans can reach enlightenment unlike animals as their lifestyle is based on survival. 
  • the three jewels are known as The Buddha, The Dharma, The Sangha - these are the centre principles of Buddhism 
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  • 3 jewels are BUDDHA, DHARMA, SANGHA 
  • BUDDHA - refers to the historical buddha and buddhahood, going for refuge to the Buddha means seeing him as the ultimate teacher and spiritual being - committment - we aim to become someone who sees the true nature of reality clearly and lives fully and naturally in accordance with the spiritual life - representing the end of suffering for anyone who attains it 
  • DHARMA - means the teachings and truth of which the Buddha understands - unmeditated truth. teachings that the buddha put his realisation into words and communicated them - the fist turning of the wheel, includes records of the Buddha's life [PALI CANON]. these teachings are the best guide to reality. TRIRATNA APPROACH - emphasises these central teachings to develop mindfulness and kindness, examining our actions in the light of our ethical values. Connects with Buddha's qualities of wisdom/ compassion - SANGHRASHITA -there are no higher teachings, only deeper realisations'- formulated discovery of 4 noble truths and deer park sermon
  • SANGHA - refers to the spiritual community. Buddhism is a way of approaching life ie TRIRATNA COMMUNITY - study and practise buddhism ,meditation, arts and events, co operate and spread the dhamma- these members work for their own salvation and preserve the dharma so everyone can follow it 
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  • recurring patterns of rebirth is known as samsara 'continuous movement'
  • people fear its a form of imprisonmenta 
  • teachings of the Buddhism can help us seen our internal samsara and clear a way through mentak and emotional labryniths of rebirth 
  • yama is known as the lord of death 
  • samsara - means eternal wandering 
  • beings cycle through six realms of existence 
  • reasons for the existence of samsara - people fixate on themselves/ experiences, it comes from ignorance/ state of suffering and dissatisfaction - can be overcome by following buddhist path and improving karma
  • karma - is the buddhist version of law of cause and effect - cycle of samsara is driven by the law of karma 
  • nirvana is the eternal state where karma and samsara no longer exist, represents end of desire and suffering of individual consciousness
  • concept of samsara teaches that humans have ultimate control over themselves, if people use the laws of Buddhism daily they will eventually reach self acceptance - helps with accepting others and reaching enlightenment, only then the cycle of samsara will be broken 
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  • wheel of life is driven by the three root poisons - GREED [cockrel], HATRED [snake], IGNORANCE [pig]
  • Buddhism teaches out of ignorance = produces real happiness, when we do not get what we want hatred clouds our perception and further fuels ignorace, the wheel keeps on turning
  • the light section of the semi circle left side shows progess upwards, positive states of mind, good karma and better rebirth 
  • dark section of the semi circle right side shows tumbling downwards, led by demons, representing negative states of mind, bad karma and bad rebirth 
  • the 6 realms are luxury gods - heaven realm, angry gods - titan realm, lions/horse - animal realm, torture - hell realm, petas - hungry ghost realm, human realm - we can work towards enlightenment
  • these teachings can be seen as a representation of reality/ state of mind 
  • these realms are an expression of one's state of mind - depends on how you behaved in this life 
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  • hub in the middle = 3 poisons - trivisa, second layer - karma ,third layer - six realms of samsara
  • fourth layer - 12 links of dependent origination 
  • figure - yama lord of death - impermance 
  • left side = liberation and samsara cycle - liberation is possible 
  • samsara is a long and aimless process - there is no beginning to the cycle of rebirth - immumerable lives - HARVEY 'run and wander on' 

HOW TO ELIMINATE THE THREE POISIONS - buddhists goal of nirvana is beyond forms of existence in the process of rebirth, we may find ourselves in any of these realms - depending on our karma 

  • meditation, charity, kindness, morality 
  • ignorance - listen, wisdom 
  • angry/hatred - love/passion 
  • greed - generosity 
  • propelled by karma beings take rebirth in the 6 realms of samsara
  • the higher realms - demi gods, human realm
  • the lower realms - hell, ghost, animal realm
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  • outer layer of the wheel is 12 links of dependent orgination - PRATIYASAMUTPADA 
  • all dharmas arise in dependence upon other dharmas 'if this exists that exists' 
  • applied to DUKKHA and the cessation of dukkha
  • describes the chain of causes liberation from endless cycle can be attained
  • principle compliments teachings of annica and annata
  • bodhi means 'to awaken' 
  • attatchment and craving - sensation of what we desire 
  • buddha's chain of events = contact, feelings, craving, attatchment
  • spiritual ignorance breaks the chain once we understand the dharma - wisdom - there is no more rebirth 
  • dependent orgination is also called the law of causality - nothing exists on its own but always has come from earlier circumstances - THICH NHAT HANH - 'the world is woven of interconnected threads' 
  • the buddha saw the interdependence of all life and the cause and effect of actions which create their own future 
  • yama lord of death signifies impermanence - cycle of samsara is constantly changing, he has 5 skulls - symbolises the 5 poisions 
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  • BUDDHA - siddhartha gotoma 'awakened one'
  • SANGHA -  monastic community 
  • THERAVADA - way of elders
  • DHARMA - teachings 'timeless/univeral'
  • MAYHAYANA - great vehicle 
  • MAGGA - eightfold path 
  • DEVA - gods
  • DUKKHA - suffering 
  • 3 JEWELS / REFUGES - dharma, sangha, buddha 
  • PETA - hungry ghost realm 
  • SUNYA - emptiness
  • NIRVARNA - extinguish fires
  • BODHI - to awaken 
  • KARMA - actions have consequences 
  • SAMSARA - eternal wandering 
  • ANATTA - no self 
  • ASCETIC - nothingness 
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  • BUDDHA - siddhartha gotoma 'awakened one'
  • SANGHA -  monastic community 
  • THERAVADA - way of elders
  • DHARMA - teachings 'timeless/univeral'
  • MAYHAYANA - great vehicle 
  • MAGGA - eightfold path 
  • DEVA - gods
  • DUKKHA - suffering 
  • 3 JEWELS / REFUGES - dharma, sangha, buddha 
  • PETA - hungry ghost realm 
  • SUNYA - emptiness
  • NIRVARNA - extinguish fires
  • BODHI - to awaken 
  • KARMA - actions have consequences 
  • SAMSARA - eternal wandering 
  • ANATTA - no self 
  • ASCETIC - nothingness 
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  • TATHAGATA - on death buddha wont be born 
  • NIRYAYA - hell realm
  • ANNICA - impermanence 
  • TRIVISA - 3 poisions 
  • DEMI GODS - gods that are jelous of proper gods
  • SASANA - all institutions of Buddhism 
  • PARNIBBANA - deathless , not reborn 
  • NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH - 4 noble truths, achieve enlightenment
  • ARHAT - worthy one 
  • 4 NOBLE TRUTHS - suffering, craving cause by suffering, nirvana, noble eightfold path 
  • THE MIDDLE WAY - way of life between luxury and ascetic
  • BHAVACAKRA - wheel of life 
  • YAMA - god of death 
  • PRATITYASAMUTPADA - fourth outer layer of wheel symbolise12 links of dependent orgination
  • PUNABBAVA - rebecoming 
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  • the book of the dead 'BARDO' descirbes 49 days between one life and the next, when a person is dying a monk will read this book in attempt to communicate with the departing spirit to achieve enlightenment 
  • the first experinece of death is that the spirit remains closely to the dead bidy and communicates with living relatives
  • people perceive white light as separate to themselves, this is a pure, clear, fundamental state, if one can realise this they have reached enlightenment/ buddhahood = no more rebirth 
  • the second stage of the bardo = ghost appearnce, bodhisattvas appear in peaceful forms in the next 7 days
  • our karma causes us to be attracted to particular lights and the desire for rebirth - terrible thirst
  • when one sees possible parents and feels a desire to enter the particular womb it is then reborn 
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  • teachings - greed, hatred, delusion/ignorance = 3 root poisions/3 fires - these suggest how dangerous afflictive thoughts /emotions can be if they are not understood/ transformed
  • greed refers to selfishness, misplaced desire, attachment and grasping for happiness and satisfaction outside of ourselves
  • hatred refers to our anger, replusion towards unpleasant people and towards our own uncomfortable feelings
  • delusion refers to our dullness, bewilderment and misperception, our wrong views of reality 
  • the 3 poisions are the products of ignorance, arising above these can motivate our mind with virtuous and skilful thought, actions and speech 
  • the 3 poisions are deeply embedded in conditioning our personalities / our minds
  • burning within us as lust, craving, anger, resentment and misunderstanding is driving us blind, we are thirsty through the endless round of rebirth and death - samsara 
  • the buddha describes this as 'bonds, fetters, hindrances and knots'
  • with clarity and insight we can make the choice to eliminate those factors
  • the 4 noble truths explains we can embrace and understand causes of our suffering, we can take steps to extinguish those causes/ liberate ourselves - positive and empowering 
  • important for us to realise dharma teachings - purification/ solid facts essential to understand
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  • burning desire , unquenchable thirst - TANHA - craving and lust, we want lasting satifaction so we feel fulfilled, whole and complete
  • poision of greed - inner huger, we strive towards the unattainable, believing happiness is dependent on the goal but once we attain it we get no lasting satisfaction - greed and desire arises - we are never content 
  • this results in lack of generosity and compassion - we are more compulsive and destructive this can effect our personal lives - it brings an endless cycle that only brings suffering/unhappiness
  • we want bigger and better things to fulfil our insatiable inner hunger and thirst 
  • greed is also known as LOBHA 
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  • anger, hostility, wishing harm/ suffering upon another person/ avoid unpleasant feelings, circumstances anfd people we do not like - we want everything to be pleasant/ satisfying this reinforces our perception of duality and separation 
  • hatred and anger = vicious cycle of always finding conflict and enemies everywhere - our mind is never calm and we act for revenge
  • with hatred we deny, resist and push away our own inner feelings of fear, hurt, loneliness, we create conflict and enemies in the world around us / within our own being 
  • hatred is represented by the snake 
  • hatred is also referred to as DVESHA 
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  • delusion is our wrong understanding/ wrong views of reality, it is our misperception of the way the world works, free of perceptual distortions
  • influenced by delusion we are not living in accordance with the dharma - do not understand the interdependent nature of life
  • constantly looking outside of ourselves for happiness, satisfaction, solutions to our problems and outward searching creates even more frustration, anger and delusion 
  • delusion blinds us to a vicious cycle where there does not appear to be any way out 
  • delusion is also known as MOHA 
  • it manifrests as the belief in an autonomous and permanent soul/ self 
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  • the buddha taught the poisons can be purified/ transformed
  • we can break down the chain of suffering and negative karma
  • teachings tell us that enlightenment is our true nature, we can shine through the purifed mind and heart 
  • the goal of spiritual practise is to liberate ourselves from then defilments that obsecure that natural clarity, radiancea and joy of enlightenment 
  • working towards purification requires patience, care, persistence and deep compassion for ourselves and others 
  • transformation beings with the challenge of calming the mind and seeing deeply into ourselves
  • to eliminate these poisions we need to recognise them when they first appear - we need to be mindful and aware/ see how they influence our everyday thoughts, feelings, speech/ action
  • to accomplish this awareness we train our minds through meditation and learn to concentrate on our breathing allowing thoughts and feelings to arise/ pass without reacting to them / evaluating them 
  • through practise we become more aware of ourselves in everyday situations, we can be conscious of these thoughts and work skilfully with them before they get out of control/ causing harm to ourselves and others 
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  • antidotes/ alternatives are the opposite of the three root poisions 
  • this is a method whereby we eliminate unwholesome mental attitudes and replace them with virtuous ones 
  • the entire aim of spiritual practise is to gradually subdue the poisons of greed, hatred and delusion by cultivating the eternal mental factors that are directly opposed to them ie non greed , non hatred, non delusion 
  • to overcome we learn to cultivate selflessness, generosity, we can practise giving away those things we would be most likely to hold onto
  • happiness does not come from anything external, we free ourselves from delusion 
  • we then develop a clear understanding of karma 
  • by studying the dharma and applying the teachings properly in our lives we will gradually wear away behaviours, fully liberating ourselves from stress, unhappiness and suffering 
  • the buddha calls this 'faintless liberation of the mind'
  • when 3 poisions are extinguished - peace, wisdom, unity, bliss of nirvana shine fourth as our essential nature 
  • the antidote to ignorance is wisdom, antidote to hate is loving kindness, antidote to greed is generosity 
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