- Created by: Rosiem2102
- Created on: 10-07-18 12:23
- Schaffer and Emerson (1964) found that babies became attached to mother first.
- Formed secondary attachments within a few weeks or months.
- 75% of infants had an attachment with father by 18 months.
- Infants protested when father walked away (a sign of attachment).
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The role of the father
- Grossman (2002) carried out a longitudinal study looking at both parents' behaviour and its relationship with quality attachment into teens.
- Quality of infant attachment with mother and not father related with to children's attachment in adolescence. (suggested that father's attachment was less important)
- Quality of father's play with infants was related to quality of adolescent attachments.
- Suggests fathers have a different role in attachments (play and stimulation rather than nurturing).
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Fathers as primary carers
- Some evidence to suggest that fathers adopt maternal behaviours when they take on the role of main caregiver.
- Field (1978) filmed 4 month old babies in face to face interaction with primary caregiver mothers, secondary caregiver fathers and primary caregiver fathers.
- Primary caregiver fathers showed more reciprocity than secondary caregiver fathers.
- Behaviour appears to be important in building attachment.
- Seems that fathers can be more nurturing attachment figure.
- Key to attachment is level of responsiveness and not gender.
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Inconsistent findings on fathers
- Different researchers interested in different research questions.
- Some psychologists interested in role as primary attachment figures while others interested in role as secondary attachment figures.
- Some see fathers as behaving differently from mothers and having a distinct role while others find that fathers can take on a maternal role.
- C- These findings can be applicable for either position of attachment. E.g. distinct role as secondary attachment and maternal role as primary.
- Psychologists cannot easily answer the simple question 'what is the role of the father?'
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If fathers have a distinct role, why aren't childr
- Grossman found that fathers as secondary attachment figures had an important role in children's development.
- Other studies have found children growing up in single or same sex parent families do not develop any differently from those in two parent heterosexual families.
- C- These studies may not assess these children as adults when they raise their own children.
- Suggests that father's role as a secondary attachment figure is not important.
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Why don't fathers generally become primary attachm
- Traditional gender roles
- Limitation because research does not incorporate these factors.
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