A flame test is used to test for certain metal ion.
Potassium has the flame colour Lilac
Sodium has the flame colour Orange/yellow
Calcuim has the flame colour brick red
Magnesium has the flame colour Colourless
Barium has the flame colour green
Copper has the flame colour Blue - Green
Test for Chloride, Bromide and Iodide
Add dilute nitric acid to make it acidic. Then add silver nitrate solution.
Chloride present has a white precipitate
Bromide present has a pale precipitate
Iodide present has a yellow precipitate
Test for Acid
Add sodium bicarbonate.
The bubbles of gas that is produced turns limewater milky.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is produced
Test for alkene
Add Bomine to solution if which is brown
if and alkene is present the solution turns colourless
Test for ammonium ions
Add sodium hydroxide to an ammonium salt (solid or in solution), to produce ammonia gas.
In the warm you can test the gas comming off with the piece of damp red litmus paper.
Ammonia is an alkaline and turns the litmus paper blue.
Test for sulphate ions
Make a solution of sulphate, add enough hydroloric acid to make it acidic
Add baruim chloride solution
The sulphate will produce a white precipitate of baium sulphate.
Testing for Positive ions using precipiations
Add sodium hydroxide solution
Copper(II) sulphate - Blue precipiate
Iron(III) Chloride - Orange-Brown precipiate
Iron(II) Sulphate - Green precipiate
Magnesium sulpate - White precipiate
Zinc Sulphate - White precipitate
Test for gases
Oxygen - relights a glowing splint
Carbon Dioxide - Turns limewater milky
Hydrogen - will 'pop' when lighted plint is held the mouth of the tube
Ammonia - turns damp red litmus paper blue