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The Contact Process
The contact process is the industrial manufacture of sulphuric acid.
Stage One: Sulphur is burned in air to form sulphur dioxide.
S + O2 SO2
Stage Two: Sulphur dioxide is reacted with more oxygen. This requires a Vanadium (V) Oxide catalyst
and a temperature of 450°C to…

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Weak bases don't completely dissociate into ions.
NH4OH NH4 + OH-
Neutralisation
This is the reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water.
NaOH +HCl NaCl + H2O
PH Scale
A scale of number between 0 and 14 showing different PH values of acids and…

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C5H12

Pentane Methyl Butane Di-Methyl Propane






Alkenes
All alkenes are made up of carbon and hydrogen, and all contain at least one carbon to carbon double
bond, represented by C=C. Alkenes are said to be unsaturated because their double bond can open
up and let other atoms join on. They…

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All alcohols contain the functional group (-OH).



Methanol ­ CH3OH Ethanol ­ C2H5OH Propanol ­ C3H7OH




Making Alcohols

Alcohol is made by the fermentation of sugar by the enzymes in yeast.

Glucose Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

Advantages of Alcohols

o Some people like the taste.
o…

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The UK has a somewhat dreary and cold climate, whereas sugar cane (where ethanol comes from
naturally) requires a hot and sunny climate to be grown. Also, there is not enough land available to
grow enough sugar cane to produce fuel for the whole county.

What Happens When Wine Is…

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We can test for the ammonium ion by adding sodium hydroxide to ammonium chloride and
heating gently. Ammonium gas will be given off, and this gas will turn damp red litmus paper
blue.

We can test for the sulphate ion by adding barium chloride solution, if sulphate is present,
then…

Page 7

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N = 0.1× 0.025 (*always remember to divide your concentrations by one thousand to covert
to decimetres)

N = 0.0025 moles

There is a 1:1 ration between NaCl and HCl, therefore the number of moles of NaCl = 0.0025

From this, we can work out the concentration;

C=N÷V

C =…

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Mariya Onatska

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