•Connecting to the internet:
–PC connected to a telephone line. Often attached to the telephone line via a modem (Converts data from the PC into a suitable format for sending over the telephone line.) Both ends need a modem.
–The modem connects the PC to an Internet Service Provider. All info is sent via the ISP
–For a wireless connection you need a router
–The internet has two main parts: WWW (Web browser software needed) and e-mail (E-mail client software needed).
–Create the message
–Connect to the internet
–Press the send button
–Message is sent from sender’s ISP to a mailbox in recipient’s ISP
–Recipient connects to the internet – opens account and collects e-mail.
It’s quick (Especially compared to letters)
It’s cheap (Cheaper than letters or fax esp. For attachments)
The same message can be sent to loads of people.
–Sender and receiver both need internet and accounts.
–Software and hardware can be expensive if you’re only using e-mail.
–The e-mail won’t be delivered if a single letter is wrong on the address
–The e-mail won’t be read until the receiver opens their e-mail account – problem if the e-mail is urgent.
WAN: Wide Area Network used to connect workstations over a large geographical area. Wans need a server to operate the network and the staff would connect to the network using telephone lines/ satellite channels.
LAN: Local Area Network used in offices or Schools Lans need a Network File Server (Runs software needed by network). Terminals(Gives access to networks software and files). Print Server: If a group of terminals share a printer, if two or more documents are sent to the printer it can queue them. Data is sent around network using wire or fibre-optic cables, or radio signals.
The fan club would use a LAN because they are based in one office rather than over a large geographical area
–Cables are expensive to install and replace
–Needs a network manager to maintain system- cost
–Security measures are needed to restrict access to the network
–A fault w/the server will prevent the whole network from working
–Expensive peripherals and software application can be shared
–Work can be accessed from any computer on the network
–Storing files centrally means they are safely ‘backed up’
•Star: Large no of workstations connected to central pc (server). Each workstation connected separately/directly.
–Pros: Cable failure is less of problem; performance in one part of network is unaffected by events elsewhere.
–Cons: Failure of central pc causes whole network to shut down; uses more cabling so it’s more expensive.
•Bus (Line): data is sent to and from the file server along a line of cable. (All terminals are connected to the central line.
–Pros: Its cheap (not much cable is needed)
–Cons: Can be very slow if there are lots of users; failure of the central cable shuts down whole network
•Ring: Faster than line networks; equipment is linked in a ring. Data flows in one direction only.
–Pros: Cheap to expand; fast-data only flows one way.
–Cons: With lots of users the system becomes slower as all data is sent along a single line; failure of ring cable brings down whole network.
•Step 1: Write/open word processed document/letter
•Step 2: Open the data source and link the data source w/the document
•Step 3: Select and add field markers
•Step 4: Complete the mail merge and save and print document
–Available to buy and sell 24 hrs a day online
–Able to buy from home
–Able to buy from anywhere in the world
–More choice for the buyer
–Online catalogues (not printed on paper)
–Company has access to the wider customer base –Reduces costs for the company as they don’t need as many staff
–Need a computer and Internet access
–Buyer has to pay for delivery
–You aren’t able to try the clothes on for size before buying –Risk of credit card fraud
–Company needs a well-designed website otherwise buyers may go elsewhere
–Need good security software to making shopping secure (Expensive)
•Encryption software: Reduces the risk of credit card fraud. –Sensitive info is encrypted into a code which can only be decoded with the right the correct key Responsibilities:
–Managing the network and keeping the website up to date
–Achieving/backup the system
–Installing/updating the software
–Monitoring system performance
–Maintaining hardware (peripherals)
–Ensuring that the correct security measures are in place to prevent viruses and hacking.
Telephone vs. online
•With the telephone someone has to be able to answer the phone. Whereas online you can place orders 24/7.
•Using the telephone to place orders could be more expensive.
•Using online you can ‘browse’ through an online catalogue
•Using a telephone makes it easier to make mistakes w/the order (saying something wrong/person not being able to hear correctly). •Ordering over the phone can take longer
•Some people feel more secure talking to a person => especially if placing a high cost order => better customer assistance
•Easier for people who aren’t comfortable w/technology
Online form vs. post
•Online forms are quicker than post
•It’s easier to correct mistakes w/online forms
•If the computer crashes the data isn’t saved
•Easier for info to be intercepted and stolen online.
•Handwritten forms are easier for people who aren’t comfortable w/technology.
•If you don’t have a computer or internet then handwritten forms are better.
Health and safety issues
•Repetitive strain injury (RSI) –general term for damage to body from overuse of keyboard or mouse.
–Solution: Impose regular breaks; walking around, exercising fingers wrists etc... Also, use an ergonomically designed keyboard to reduce strain on fingers.
•Spending too long in front of a VDU can cause eye strain and headaches as the glare from the screen makes it difficult for eyes to focus.
–Solution: Use correct equipment; a screen filter to reduce glare from VDU/ good background lighting
•Circulation, fitness and back problems (long term problem)
–Solution: Use a proper computer chair w/backrest; adjust to most comfortable position. Regular breaks for exercise.
Employers must follow the Health & Safety Regulations 1992
•The fan club sells the merch. at a 20% increase of the cost price => formula ‘=Cx +(Cx * 0.2)’
•The fan club reorders stock if the closing stock is less than y => formula ‘=IF(Ex < y, “Yes”, “No)
General formula: ‘=IF(Scenario, “Statement true”, “Statement false”)
•Replication: Process used to copy formula from one cell to a number of others
•Macro: Used to automatically insert spreadsheets into word processed document
•Validation; checks the club might do–Length check (E.g.: 5 Characters/numbers for membership no and telephone no)
–Range check (00000 to 99999)
•Normal data (00001 to 99998
•Extreme data (00000 and 99999)
•Incorrect data (Anything else)
–Picture check/format (Post codes: LLN space NLL)
Transposition error: Error caused by reversing two or more digits
of an amount while posting a transaction. If two adjacent
numbers are switched, the resulting error is always divisible by 9