ICT Edexcel case study 2011

Revision notes for the edexcel ICT case study 2011

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  • Created by: Lucy
  • Created on: 29-05-11 14:50

Websites

Connecting to the internet:

PC connected to a telephone line. Often attached to the telephone line via a modem (Converts data from the PC into a suitable format for sending over the telephone line.) Both ends need a modem.

The modem connects the PC to an Internet Service Provider. All info is sent via the ISP 

For a wireless connection you need a router

The internet has two main parts: WWW (Web browser software needed) and e-mail (E-mail client software needed). 

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E-mail

Sending:

Create the message

Connect to the internet

Press the send button

Message is sent from sender’s ISP to a mailbox in recipient’s ISP 

Recipient connects to the internet – opens account and collects e-mail.

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E-mail

Advantages:

It’s quick (Especially compared to letters)

It’s cheap (Cheaper than letters or fax esp. For attachments)

The same message can be sent to loads of people.


Disadvantages:
Sender and receiver both need internet and accounts.
Software and hardware can be expensive if you’re only using e-mail.
The e-mail won’t be delivered if a single letter is wrong on the address
The e-mail won’t be read until the receiver opens their e-mail account – problem if the e-mail is urgent. 

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Networks

WAN: Wide Area Network used to connect workstations over a large geographical areaWans need a server to operate the network and the staff would connect to the network using telephone lines/ satellite channels.

LAN: Local Area Network used in offices or Schools  Lans need a Network File Server (Runs software needed by network). Terminals(Gives access to networks software and files). Print Server: If a group of terminals  share a printer, if two or more documents are sent to the printer it can queue them. Data is sent around network using wire or fibre-optic cables, or radio signals.

The fan club would use a LAN because they are based in one office rather than over a large geographical area

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Networks

Disadvantages:

Cables are expensive to install and replace
Needs a network manager to maintain system- cost
Security measures are needed to restrict access to the network
A fault w/the server will prevent the whole network from working

Advantages:

Expensive peripherals and software application can be shared
Work can be accessed from any computer on the network
Storing files centrally means they are safely ‘backed up’

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Topologies

Star: Large no of workstations connected to central pc (server). Each workstation connected separately/directly.

Pros: Cable failure is less of problem; performance in one part of network is unaffected by events elsewhere.

Cons: Failure of central pc causes whole network to shut down; uses more cabling so it’s more expensive.

Bus (Line): data is sent to and from the file server along a line of cable. (All terminals are connected to the central line.

Pros: Its cheap (not much cable is needed)
Cons: Can be very slow if there are lots of users; failure of the central cable shuts down whole network

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Topologies

Ring: Faster than line networks; equipment is linked in a ring. Data flows in one direction only.

Pros: Cheap to expand; fast-data only flows one way.

Cons: With lots of users the system becomes slower as all data is sent along a single line; failure of ring cable brings down whole network. 

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Mail merge

Step 1: Write/open word processed document/letter

Step 2: Open the data source and link the data source w/the document

Step 3: Select and add field markers

Step 4: Complete the mail merge and save and print document

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E-commerce

Advantages:

Available to buy and sell 24 hrs a day online

Able to buy from home

Able to buy from anywhere in the world

More choice for the buyer

Online catalogues (not printed on paper)

Company has access to the wider customer base Reduces costs for the company as they don’t need as many staff

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E-commerce

 Disadvantages:

Need a computer and Internet access

Buyer has to pay for delivery

You aren’t able to try the clothes on for size before buying Risk of credit card fraud

Company needs a well-designed website otherwise buyers may go elsewhere

Need good security software to making shopping secure (Expensive)  

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Encryption software: Reduces the risk of credit card fraud. Sensitive info is encrypted into a code which can only be decoded with the right the correct key  Responsibilities:
Managing the network and keeping the website up to date
Achieving/backup the system
Installing/updating the software
Monitoring system performance
Maintaining hardware (peripherals)
Ensuring that the correct security measures are in place to prevent viruses and hacking.

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Telephone vs. online

With the telephone someone has to be able to answer the phone. Whereas online you can place orders 24/7.

Using the telephone to place orders could be more expensive.

Using online you can ‘browse’ through an online catalogue

Using a telephone makes it easier to make mistakes w/the order (saying something wrong/person not being able to hear correctly). Ordering over the phone can take longer

Some people feel more secure talking to a person => especially if placing a high cost order => better customer assistance

Easier for people who aren’t comfortable w/technology  

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Online form vs. post

Online forms are quicker than post

It’s easier to correct mistakes w/online forms

If the computer crashes the data isn’t saved

Easier for info to be intercepted and stolen online.

Handwritten forms are easier for people who aren’t comfortable w/technology.

If you don’t have a computer or internet then handwritten forms are better. 

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Health and safety issues

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) –general term for damage to body from overuse of keyboard or mouse.
Solution: Impose regular breaks; walking around, exercising fingers wrists etc... Also, use an ergonomically designed keyboard to reduce strain on fingers.

Spending too long in front of a VDU can cause eye strain and headaches as the glare from the screen makes it difficult for eyes to focus.
Solution: Use correct equipment; a screen filter to reduce glare from VDU/ good background lighting

Circulation, fitness and back problems (long term problem)
Solution: Use a proper computer chair w/backrest; adjust to most comfortable position. Regular breaks for exercise.

Employers must follow the Health & Safety Regulations 1992

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Spreadsheets

The fan club sells the merch. at a 20% increase of the cost price => formula ‘=Cx +(Cx * 0.2)’

The fan club reorders stock if the closing stock is less than y => formula ‘=IF(Ex < y, “Yes”, “No)

General formula: ‘=IF(Scenario, “Statement true”, “Statement false”)

Replication: Process used to copy formula from one cell to a number of others

Macro: Used to automatically insert spreadsheets into word processed document

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Database

Validation; checks the club might doLength check (E.g.: 5 Characters/numbers for membership no and telephone no)
Range check (00000 to 99999)
Normal data (00001 to 99998
Extreme data (00000 and 99999)
Incorrect data (Anything else)
Picture check/format (Post codes: LLN space NLL) 
Presence check

Transposition error: Error caused by reversing two or more digits
of an amount while posting a transaction. If two adjacent
numbers are switched, the resulting error is always divisible by 9

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Comments

JamilaForest

life saver

jonny

agreed ^

Mohsin

fanks

Alex Wood

hai mohsdog, ukk?

Mohsin

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Alex Wood

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Mohsin

TIME 2 REVISE.

Alex Wood

agreed^

Mohsin

Alex Wood wrote:

indeed

Mohsin

Alex Wood wrote:

Mohsin

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Alex Wood

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Alex Wood

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Mohsin

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Alex Wood

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Alex Wood

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Alex Wood

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Mohsin

FUCK OFF

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