Human Health and Disease

Human Health and Disease

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Health and Disease

Health - complete physical, mental and social well-being.

Disease - ill-health with a set of symptoms.

Malfunction of the mind/body leading to a departure from good health.

Multifactorial.

Acute - Sudden onset with rapid changes lasting for a short time.

Chronic - months/years.

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Catagories of Disease

  • Physical - Damage to the body
  • Mental - Psychological Disorder
  • Social - Disease from environment
  • Infectious - Caused by pathogens
  • Non-Infectious - Not caused by pathogens
  • Degenerative - Gradual decline in bodily functions

Genes, mutation, parents to child via gametes, parents = carriers or sufferers, caused by recessive/dominant alleles.

  • Self-inflicted - Person's own lifestyle put them at risk
  • Deficiency - Lack of energy/nutrients
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Human Genome Project

Identifies human genes and what each one codes for. Genome = all genetic material

Advantages:

  • Link between genes and disease
  • Reliable DNA tests
  • Blood sample
  • Screening unborn child
  • Post natal screening for diseases

As a result:

  • Targeting treatment
  • Targeting preventative measures
  • Drugs
  • Gene therapy
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Disavantages:

  • Results from gene tests not always clear cut
  • FX on psychological health knowing harmful allele
  • Employers discrimination
  • Insurance discrimination
  • Copyright of genetic info
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Health Statistics

Epidemiology - study of patterns of disease.

Epidemiologists collect data on morbidity and mortality for a population.

Compare different places using 'per 100,000' to make fair comparisons.

Incidence - no. ppl diagnosed

Prevalence - no. ppl with a disease

Mortality - no. ppl who die

Use of statistics

  • Which diseases are most common
  • Priorities for health care
  • Comparing populations in diff parts of countries
  • Comparing populations in diff countries
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Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic

Endemic - infectious disease always in population

Epidemic - diseases spreads rapidly

Pandemic - disease spreads over a continent/internationally.

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Global Patterns of Disease

Infectious diseases in LEDCs -

  • Limited control programmes
  • Remote areas
  • Poor health care
  • Sanitation
  • Water supply
  • Cholera
  • Overcrowding
  • TB
  • Poor control of HIV spread
  • ref Antibiotics
  • ref vaccination
  • ref nutrition
  • ref housing
  • ref education
  • ref cost
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Components of a Balanced Diet

Macronutrients - supply enrgy for growth, repair, movement and organ functioning.

  • Proteins; amino acids. Essential amino acids must be in diet.
  • Fats; long term energy store. Essential fatty acids must be in diet. Make phosopholipids for cell membranes from fatty acids and glycogen.
  • Carbohydrates; Energy for respiration. Stored as glycogen in the liver.

Micronutrients - vitamins and minerals

Fat-soluable Vitamins;

  • A - (retinol) - retina functioning in eye and epithelial tissue.
  • D - Stimulates Ca uptake from gut, deposits in bone.
  • K - Substances promoting blood clotting.

Water-soluable Vitamins;

  • B - respiration, protein synth, nucleic acid synth, RBC synth, nerve function.
  • C - aids wound healing.

Age - young = more protein, old = more Ca

Gender - females need more iron

Pregnancy - more Folic Acid (vit.B)to protect against spina bifida

Physical Activity - Active = more protein for muscle development and carbs for energy.

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Dietary Requirements

RDA - US 1940s Military

DRVs -

1) Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

  • Energy and Nutrients
  • Average for population

2) Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI)

  • More than adequate
  • Nutrients

3) LRNI

  • Low needs
  • Nutrients

4) Safe Intakes; nutrients without statistical data

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Macronutrient Functions

Proteins

  • Provide amino acids to make proteins
  • 8 a.as can't be made - essential!!
  • Can change some a.as into others
  • Essential - heal wounds and stop hair loss.

Essential Fatty Acids

  • Linoleic and Linolenic Acids
  • Linolenic Acid - makes phospholipids and lowers cholesterol

Vit A

  • Meat and Veg
  • Good eyesight
  • Epitheial cells in good nic.

Vit D

  • Oily fish and eggs
  • Control Ca absorption, helps absorb phosphorus for ATP
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Malnutrition - Starvation

Metabolism slows

Protein energy malnutrition

Kwashiorkor

  • underweight
  • odema (lack of plasma protein...more h2o potential..no osmosis into caps from tissue fluid..tissues swell)
  • moon face
  • dry, thin, reddish hair
  • fatty enlarged liver
  • bloated
  • apathetic
  • no appetite
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Malnutrition - Starvation

Marasmus (general starvation and Anorexia)

  • v. underweight
  • no odema
  • old man's face
  • muslce wasting
  • little change to hair
  • wrinkled skin
  • mentally alert
  • no loss of appetite
  • Wasting - mjr weight loss (reversible)
  • Stunting - poor growth (irreversible)
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Deficiency

Vit D Deficiency

  • Sunlight
  • In muslces and fat
  • Fat soluable
  • Eggs, Oil
  • Active form - Stimulates intestine to absorb Ca.
  • Symtoms - Rickets (weak bones, bowed legs), Osteomalacia (bone softening)

Vit A Deficiency

  • Retinol
  • Fat Soluable
  • Carotenoids > Retinal
  • In liver
  • Symptoms; xeropthlamia, night blindness, epithelia infections
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Obesity

energy intake > energy usage

risks;

  • CHD (high BP and cholesterol)
  • Diabetes
  • Colon, rectum, prostate, uterus, cervix and breast cancer
  • Arthritis
  • Hernias
  • Varicose Veins
  • Gallstones
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