Health and Disease
Health - complete physical, mental and social well-being.
Disease - ill-health with a set of symptoms.
Malfunction of the mind/body leading to a departure from good health.
Acute - Sudden onset with rapid changes lasting for a short time.
Chronic - months/years.
Catagories of Disease
- Physical - Damage to the body
- Mental - Psychological Disorder
- Social - Disease from environment
- Infectious - Caused by pathogens
- Non-Infectious - Not caused by pathogens
- Degenerative - Gradual decline in bodily functions
Genes, mutation, parents to child via gametes, parents = carriers or sufferers, caused by recessive/dominant alleles.
- Self-inflicted - Person's own lifestyle put them at risk
- Deficiency - Lack of energy/nutrients
Human Genome Project
Identifies human genes and what each one codes for. Genome = all genetic material
- Link between genes and disease
- Reliable DNA tests
- Blood sample
- Screening unborn child
- Post natal screening for diseases
As a result:
- Targeting treatment
- Targeting preventative measures
- Gene therapy
- Results from gene tests not always clear cut
- FX on psychological health knowing harmful allele
- Employers discrimination
- Insurance discrimination
- Copyright of genetic info
Epidemiology - study of patterns of disease.
Epidemiologists collect data on morbidity and mortality for a population.
Compare different places using 'per 100,000' to make fair comparisons.
Incidence - no. ppl diagnosed
Prevalence - no. ppl with a disease
Mortality - no. ppl who die
Use of statistics
- Which diseases are most common
- Priorities for health care
- Comparing populations in diff parts of countries
- Comparing populations in diff countries
Endemic, Epidemic, Pandemic
Endemic - infectious disease always in population
Epidemic - diseases spreads rapidly
Pandemic - disease spreads over a continent/internationally.
Global Patterns of Disease
Infectious diseases in LEDCs -
- Limited control programmes
- Remote areas
- Poor health care
- Water supply
- Poor control of HIV spread
- ref Antibiotics
- ref vaccination
- ref nutrition
- ref housing
- ref education
- ref cost
Components of a Balanced Diet
Macronutrients - supply enrgy for growth, repair, movement and organ functioning.
- Proteins; amino acids. Essential amino acids must be in diet.
- Fats; long term energy store. Essential fatty acids must be in diet. Make phosopholipids for cell membranes from fatty acids and glycogen.
- Carbohydrates; Energy for respiration. Stored as glycogen in the liver.
Micronutrients - vitamins and minerals
- A - (retinol) - retina functioning in eye and epithelial tissue.
- D - Stimulates Ca uptake from gut, deposits in bone.
- K - Substances promoting blood clotting.
- B - respiration, protein synth, nucleic acid synth, RBC synth, nerve function.
- C - aids wound healing.
Age - young = more protein, old = more Ca
Gender - females need more iron
Pregnancy - more Folic Acid (vit.B)to protect against spina bifida
Physical Activity - Active = more protein for muscle development and carbs for energy.
RDA - US 1940s Military
1) Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
- Energy and Nutrients
- Average for population
2) Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI)
- More than adequate
- Low needs
4) Safe Intakes; nutrients without statistical data
- Provide amino acids to make proteins
- 8 a.as can't be made - essential!!
- Can change some a.as into others
- Essential - heal wounds and stop hair loss.
Essential Fatty Acids
- Linoleic and Linolenic Acids
- Linolenic Acid - makes phospholipids and lowers cholesterol
- Meat and Veg
- Good eyesight
- Epitheial cells in good nic.
- Oily fish and eggs
- Control Ca absorption, helps absorb phosphorus for ATP
Malnutrition - Starvation
Protein energy malnutrition
- odema (lack of plasma protein...more h2o potential..no osmosis into caps from tissue fluid..tissues swell)
- moon face
- dry, thin, reddish hair
- fatty enlarged liver
- no appetite
Malnutrition - Starvation
Marasmus (general starvation and Anorexia)
- v. underweight
- no odema
- old man's face
- muslce wasting
- little change to hair
- wrinkled skin
- mentally alert
- no loss of appetite
- Wasting - mjr weight loss (reversible)
- Stunting - poor growth (irreversible)
Vit D Deficiency
- In muslces and fat
- Fat soluable
- Eggs, Oil
- Active form - Stimulates intestine to absorb Ca.
- Symtoms - Rickets (weak bones, bowed legs), Osteomalacia (bone softening)
Vit A Deficiency
- Fat Soluable
- Carotenoids > Retinal
- In liver
- Symptoms; xeropthlamia, night blindness, epithelia infections
energy intake > energy usage
- CHD (high BP and cholesterol)
- Colon, rectum, prostate, uterus, cervix and breast cancer
- Varicose Veins