- Created by: oanderton
- Created on: 31-08-20 10:29
Lloyd George's foreign policy was largely ineffective and damaged his reputation as a leader.
- Chanak Crisis saw him going against popular opinion in his government and in Britain.
- Made him an unpopular leader.
- Forced agreements at the Washington Conference damaged Britain's relationship with Japan, replaced the Anglo-Japanese agreement 1902, which was more secure than its replacement, and showed Britain's weakness to American demands.
- Treaty of Versailles facillitated the rise of Japanese imperialism; had been negotiated by Lloyd George.
- Had a stronger deterrant than the League of NAtions been organised, this could potentially have been quashed.
Overall, Lloyd George's foriegn policy...
- Made him unpopular.
- Made Britain look weak.
- Damaged Britains's better defence treaties and their relationships with other nations.
What was the Chanak Crisis (context only)
- War saw rise of Turkish nationalism.
- Treaty of Sevres 1920
- Gave Greece land in Turkey
- The area around Smyrna
- Gave Greece land in Turkey
- Lloyd George favoured Turkey.
- Had friendship with Greek Prime Minister.
- Conservative allies don't want war with Turkey.
- 1922 massacre
- Nationalists massacred the Greeks & enter the dimilitarised zone in Gillipoli.
- British forces at Chanak ordered to prevent Turkish forces militarising the zone.
- Creates the possibility of a major war between Britain and Turkey.
- Very unpopular with the public and the Conservative party.
- Lloyd George determined to stand up for the treaties.
- 1922: Reaction against the treaties; no one wants them to provoke Turkish war.
The effects of the Chanak Crisis
Lloyd Geiorge's action ction against Turkey was extremely unpopular.
- Chanak Crisis: Lloyd George wants to defend treaties, contrary to opposition to Turkish war from Conservative allies, and disapproval of the treaties by the public.
Lloyd George's position is very unpopular.
- Lloyd George could not overcome opposition among his MPs.
- Weakens his authority.
Chanak Crisis was one of the reasons for Lloyd George's fall as it made him unpopular.
Rise of Japan
- Britain forced to abandon 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902 by US.
- Britain forced to join US-dominated agreement at Washington COnference.
- All powers must reduce naval power in Pacific.
- Ratio of naval power must be 5:5:3 USA:Britain:Japan.
- Japan is humilliated by agreement.
- Damages relations with Japan.
- Treaty showed Britain's weakness when faced with US demands
- Was not as secure a basis for British defence as the old alliance with Japan.
- Rise of Japanese imperialism due to German colonial redistrubution in Treaty of Versailles.
- Partially a mistake of Lloyd Gorge, who negotiated the treaty.
- Britain had to increase naval power in East Asia as a result.
The Russian Revolution (context)
- Overthrow of the Tsar was a major concern.
- Provisional Government continued the war & were unpopular for it (threat of losing Russian support).
- Lenin withrew frpm the war - a problem.
- Pressure to intervene against the Bolsheviks after Russian royal family executed.
- Churchill advocated for intervening.
- Others in the cabinet more sceptical
- Forces were sent to Murmansk
- Obvious Communists would win - supporting counter-revolution became unpopular in Britain.
- Lloyd George withdrew from Russia.
- Turning point: refusal of London dockers to load a ship with arms for Poland.
- Shows strength of opposition to supporting counter-revolutiopn in Britain.
- Worries of costs, logistical problems and war wearniness.
- Action against the Bolsheviks soured relations with communist russia for years.
- Little was achieved by a half hearted intervention.
Effects of Russian Revolution
Lloyd George's government had briefly supported the counter-revolution in Russia.
- Was unpopular at home.
- Obvious revolutionaries would win.
- Worries of costs, logicstical priblems & war-weariness.
- Disapproval of counter-revolution support in Britain was strong.
- Dockers refused to ship arms to Polans.
By persuing unpopular foreiogn policy again, Lloyd George became even more unpopular.
- Support of the counter-revolution soured relations between Britain and Communist Russia for years afterwards.
- The support achieved very little, and the intervention was only breif.
- Was not worth all the negative effects.
Positives of Peace & Foreign Policy
- Concieding to US could be seen as insightful.
- US had become a major pacific power.
- Britain got most of what it wanted from the settlements
- Lloyd George was realistic in seeing that full scale involvement in Russia was impracticable.
- Conservatives feared the spread of communism.
- He gave recognition to these fears by supporting the counter revolution.
- Britain was still a major world power, despite the foreign policy falioures.
- Lloyd George's policy meant Britain played a leading role in world affairs.
- Lloyd George made Britain a major player in the League of Nation.