History paper 1


When did WW1 begin?

August 4th 1914.

It lasted for 4 years.

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When did WW1 end and how?

The armistice was signed at 11am on November 11th 1918.

11.11.1918 on the 11th hour.

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Who suffered the most damage in WW1?








Factories, roads, houses and farms were left in a terrible state.

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Who were the big 3?

David Lloyd George: British primeminister.

George Clemenceau: French primeminister.

Woodrow Wilson: USA president.

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Who was the fourth man?

Vittorio Orlando: The Italian leader.

He was meant to be part of the big 3 but wasn't.

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What were the issues discussed at Versailles?

Should Kaiser Wilhelm (Ruler of Germany) be put on trial for starting the war.

Who was guilty of starting the war?

Should Germnay be forced to pay reperations, if so, how much?

Should Germany be allowed to keep any armed forces at all - If so how many?

Should Germnay be allowed to have any colonies? If not should they become independent? Or should they become under control of the new international organisation- The league of nations.

What about the German speaking people in Austria?

Some Austrians might want to unite with Germany - Should this be allowed?

What should happen to territory on the boarders of Germany which both the Germans and neighbouring countries claimed?

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Allies- Soldiers killed- Other damage-

France- 140,000 - North-east France ruined by fighting.

Britain- 750,000 - Spent 9 billion pounds on the war.

Belgium- 50,000 - Suffered great damage from fighting.

USA- 116,000- Entered the war late and suffered.

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Central power- Soldiers killed- Other damage-

Germany- 2000,000 - Little damage but revolution and hunger at the end of the war.

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Who was responsible for the peace treaties?

They were the work of many people, politicians, diplomats, civil servants...

But the main responsibility for them overall belonged to the big 3.

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What was the task facing the peacemakers?

WW1 was so hideous that when it was over the "Victorious" countires Britain, France and the USA were determined to make sure that such a conflict could never happen again.

The 3 men in charge of making this happen became the big 3.

However they had a problem in deciding between punishing the "Losers" and exacting revenge.

The main things that influences them were fear and hatred of Germany, geographical location and the losses that they had suffered during the war.

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The Paris Peace conference 1919-1920-

The conference took place in the palace of Versailles (A short distance from Paris).

It lasted for 12 months.

32 nations were supposed to be represented, but no one from the defeated countried were invited.

5 treaties were drawn up at the conference. The main one was the Treaty Of Versailles which delt with Germany's allies.

All of the important decisions on the fate of Germany were taken by the big.

The big 3 were supported by many diplomats and expert advisers, but they often ignored their advice.

The big 3 got on badly from the start and relations between them got worse throughout the conference, especially the relationship between Wilson and Clemenceau.

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About the big 3: Clemenceau:

Character: He was a tough politician with a reputation of being uncompromising. He has seen his country been invaded several times.

Attitude to Germany: He is furious and wants revenge.

Main aims:

To make Germany so economically and militarily weak fo they cannot attack France again.

To make Germany pay.

To prevent the spread of communism.

He wants the river Rhineland to be part of France.

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About the big 3: Lloyd George:

Character: A realist, he is an experienced politician that knew there would have to be a compromise. He was on the middle ground.

Attitude to Germany: Very angry, severely punished.

Main aims:

To fulfil his electoral promise to get revenge.

To protect the British empire.

To revive the British trade (That alot went with Germany).

To prevent the spread of communism.

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About the big 3: Wilson:

Character: An idealist and reformer. As a president he had campaigned against corruption in politics and business.

Attitude to Germany: Pretty angry, punished but not too badly.

Main aims:

The 14 points, a list of ideas that are fair and reasonable.

Creation of new independent nations.

Setting up international peace keeping organisations (LON).

To prevent the spread of communism.

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What were the terms of the Treaty Of Versailles?:

1- War guilt: This was simple bt Germany thought it was really harsh. They had to accept the blame for starting the war. Article 231. The war guilt clause.

2- Reparations: The major powers agreed that Germany had to pay reperations, without telling them. They chose this because of the damage in the war. They are to be paid to the Allies. The exact amount wasn't decided until 1921, it was £6.6 billion... HUGE. If the terms of payment had not changed by the Young plan in 1929, Germany would not have finished paying until 1984.

3-German territories and colonies: The Germans oversea empire was taken. It was a cause of bad relationship between Britain and Germany (before the war). Old German colonies are now called Mandates and are controlled by the league of nations (Basically Britain and France controlled it. Dealing with German territories was complicated for the treaty. It forbidded Germany to join with its former ally Austria.

4-Germany's armed forces-The size and power of the German army was a huge concern, especially for France. So the treaty restricted it to a level much lower than before the war, 100,000 men. Conscription was banned. Germany was not allowed armoured vehicles, submarines or aircraft. The navy could only have 6 battle ships. The rhineland was demiliarised.(The boarder between Germany and France, no German troops were allowed in).

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German reaction to the TOV?

They were absolutely appalled by the terms of the TOV when it was finally signed on 28th June 1919. 

The main reason for this was that the treaty itself appeared to be very unfair and what made it worse was that many Germans had thought that it was going to be based on Woodrow's 14 points which had been written in 1917.

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The 14 points:

1- No secret treaties. (Not in the treaty)

2-Free access to the seas in peaceime or wartime. (Not in the treaty)

4- All countries to work towards disarmament. (In for only Germnay)

5- Colonies to have a say in their own future. (In for only Germany)

8-France to resign Alsace-Lorraine. (Goes in the treaty)

13-Poland to become an independant state with access to the sea. (Goes in the treaty)

14- League of nations to be set up. (Goes in the treaty)

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German loses because of the TOV:

10% Population.

13% Land.

15% Cattle.

14% Wheat.

17% Rye.

17% Potatoes.

26% Coalmines.

58% Zinc ore.

75% Iron ore.

90% Merchant shipping.

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Why did the Germans feel the TOV to be unfair?

Numerous German cartoons show how harsh the Germans believed that the TOV WAS.

They had been led to believe that their treaty was going to be baised on tthe 14 points.

They were quite happy for it to be baised on the 14 points as they were fair.

However, Clemenceau and Lloyd-George did not like a number of the 14 points, so they never included them in the treaty. Therefore meaning that the treaty came out much harsher than Germans had expected.

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Who was the German leader?

Fredrich Ebert.

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Why were Germany angry about not being invited?

Germany were angry at not being invited to Versailles because

Their government was not represented.

They were also angry that they were forced to accept the harsh treaty.

They had no choice in this and they could not have even commented in it at all.

This frustrated them as they wanted to have a say as they believe that they did not start or lose the war.

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French views on the TOV?

The Germans hated the treaty as they felt it to be too harsh and this feeling was mutual in both Britain and the USA. 

Both Lloyd George and Clemenceau had concerns that its harshness would cause another war.

But the French felt that it was not harsh enough. 

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French loses in WW1:

1358000: Soldiers killed.

2500000: Soldiers wounded.

23000: Factories destroyed.

5600km: Of railways were wrecked.

2000000: People forced to flee from their homes.

300000: Houses destroyed.

90%: Of coal and iron industry destroyed.

£5392 000 000: Spent on defence.

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What were the other peace treaties?

The TOV was the treaty that delt with Germany that they had to sign. 

But all countries defeated in WW1 had to sign a treaty also.

These treaties were not drawn up by the big 3, but by people that worked for them. 

All 4 countries had to disarm and pay reparations and none of them were happy with the terms.

Turkey in paricular was so unhappy that it refused to ratify (sign and agree) its treaty and it was eventually replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

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Treaty of St Germain:

1919 - Delt with Austria.

This treaty separated Austria from Hungary. It confirmed that austria was no longer a leading power.

It took Bohemia and Moravia and made it a new state of Czechoslovakia.

It took Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia and made it a new state of Yugoslavia (This also included the former kingdom of Serbia.

Austria also lost Galicia to Poland and land to Italy. The army was restricted to 30,000 and it could never unite with Germany. 

The old Austrian empire already collapsed by 1918 and the new states had been set up.

This treaty was sorting out jumbled up territories in to new states instead of punishing Austria. Italy were not happy because they wanted more land. However many millions of Eastern Europe got self determined and freedom to rule themselves. 

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Treaty of Neuilly:

1919- Delt with Bulgaria.

Bulgaria did well compared to Germany, Austria and Hungary.

However, it lost land to Greece,Romania and Yugoslavia.

It also lost its acess to the Mediterranean.

It had armed forces limits to 20,000 and had to pay £100 million in reparations. Bulgaria played quite a small part in the war so it was treated less harsh than their allies. But it was still ruled by foreign powers by 1920.

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Treaty of Trianon:

This wasn't signed until 1920 but like St Germain its main terms involved the transfer of territories.

Transylvania, Slovakia, Rithenia, Solvenia, Croatia -> Went from Hungary to Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugolavia.

A number of other territories were given to Romania.

Hungary lost lots of its land and population (3 million Hungarians went to other states).

Thei industries suffered from the losses (Population and raw material). 

They were meant to pay reparations but their economy was so weak that they never did.

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Treaty of Severes:

1920- Delt with Turkey.

The last one of the treaties. Turkey was important because of the empire sie and its strategic position.

Smyrna -> Taken from Turkey and given to Greece.

Syria -> Taken from Turkey and went under Mandate under French control.

They also effectively lost control od the straits running into the black sea.

They had to accept that many of their former empires such as Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco were not independant or under British or French protection.

This was in practice but still had to be accepted by Turkey. 

It was NOT a sucessful treaty- The Turks were outraged. The leader (Mustafa Kemal) changed the treaty terms when they drove the Greeks out of Smyrna. 

The result was the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). This returned Smyrna to Turkey.

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A view on the TOV:

Sir Phillip Gibbs - A British journalist speaking in 1930:

" It was a peace of vengance. It reeked of injustice. It sowed a thousand seeds from which new wars might spring. The absurdity, the wild impossibility, of extracting that vast tribute (reparations) from the defeated ememy ought to have been obvious to the most ignorant school boy"

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When and where was the LON set up?

January 1920 when the Treaty of Versailles cam into force. 

With its HQ in Geneva, Switzerland.

In 1946 after the second world war, It was replaced by the United Nations.

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Who's idea was it to set up the LON?

Presedent Woodrow Wilson is thought to be the father of the league as: 

It included the idea of his 14 points.

Insisted on the Covenant (The set of members).

Chaired the international committee, which drew up the leagues character.

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Aims of the league:

To encourage countries to disarm.

To discourage aggression from any nation. 

To encourage countries to co-operate, especially in business and trade.

To improve living and working conditions of people in all parts of the world.

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The rules of the Covenant:

1- Members were to respect the independence of eachother: Not invade.

2- If a member of the League was attackedm the rest of the league would treat this as an attack on them and go to the aid of their members. Collective security.

3- Member countries were to try to solve their disputes by talking rather than fighting. If talking didn't work then they would put their problem to the league. If the league failed to solve the dispute, members were given 3 months notice before declaring war.

4- If members disobayed the rules, the league could impose sanctions. 

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Sanctions of the league:

1- Moral sanction: A telling off.

2- Economic sanction: Members would cut off trade with the offending country.

3- Military sanction: The council of the league would ask members to provide forces to deal with the country. The league had no army of its own: NEVER USED.

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Members of the league:

In 1922, the league had 42 members.

By 1926, it had 55.

The leading members were Britain and France.

The USA never joined. 

Germany was excluded in 1920 but were allowed back in 1926. Hitler withdrew Germany again in 1933 over the issue of diarmament.

Russia (USSR) were also excluded in 1920. The soviet union became a member in 1934 but were expelled in 1939, when it joined Hitler in the attack on Poland.

Italy withdrew in 1937 because of their invasion of Abyssinia. (A breach of rules).

Japan withdrew in 1933 following their invasion of Manchuria.

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How was the league organised?

The general assembly - Each country had one vote. All decisions had to be unanimous.

The assembly met once a year and discussed general matters concerning world peace and welfare, agreed on finances and the league admitted new members.

The council - Met 3 - 4 times a year. It had 4 permanent members:

Britain, France, Italy and Japan.

The USA should have been one too, but cingress would not agree to join. 

The council delt with disputes between countires. The council's decisions had to be unanimous.

The Secretariat- It delt with the day to day work of the league.

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What was the balance of powers?

"Balancing powers" was basically balancing nations. 

Lots of people believed it would preserve peace. 

So Britain, France and Russia, joined together to form the Triple Entante.

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy made the Triple Alliance.

This would mean that if for example Britain attacked Germany or vise versa, their 'Group' would help to defent their country. 

They are all big powers so the idea was that they didnt fight.

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What was collective security?

It was the idea that all countries would agree to protect eachother.

So if Germany attacked France, Britain, Italy, every other country would help to defend France. 

They are all in the same group.

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Differences between the league and council:

The assembly meet once a year -> The council meet 3-4 times or in emergency.

The assembly are Britain, France, Italy and Japan -> The council is everyone.

The assembly just discuss -> The council do things.

SIMILARILY, they both have unanimous decisions.

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3 initial weakness of the league:

All decisions had to be unanimous - It only took one country to disagree for nothing to be done.

Membership- No USA, they are righ and need them to make it work.

No army - So the military sanction was never used.

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Why did the USA not join the league?

1- The league was linked to the TOV. Wilson insisted that everyone that signed the TOV should join the league. It was meant to inforce the treaty. But some Americans hated the treaty as many were German immigrants. They didn't want to join against Germany.

2- Many Americans thought that the league of nations plans included sending them their troops as part of the military sanction. They wanted to keep out of disputes.

3- They worried about the cost of joining. They believed it would be like signing a giant cheque. The USA would be willing to solve all problems regardless of the cost. Business leaders argued they are so wealthy as they stay out of European affairs. The USA should remain secret.

4- Other Americans didn't like the league as they were Anti-British and Anti-French. They thought the leagye would be under British and French control. They didn't want to be fighting for the British empire. Americans believed in freedom. They didn't like colonies and empires. The USA couldn't agree to safeguard all colonies of Britain and France.

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The Covenant of the league:

A covenant is a formal, signed agreement to do something.

More specifically, the Covenant of the league of nations was an agreement signed by all the members promising not to fight eachother.

It also contained the rules by which the league was ran.

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Successes of the league in the 1920s:

1920: The Aaland Islands: They had belonged to finland but Sweden disputed ownership. Most islanders were Swedish, the league decided the island should remain part of Finland.

1920: Upper Silesia: Held a plebiscite (Vote) to decide the future (As laid down by the TOV) 700,000 people voted to join Germany. 500,000 people to become part of Poland. The league particioned (divided) the area in to 1/3 to Poland and 2/3 to Germany.

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Failures of the league in the 1920s:

1923: The Ruhr: Germany fell behind with reparations. Instead of going to the league, France invaded the Ruhr.

1923: The Corfu incident: Some Italian soldiers employed by the conference of ambassedors to mark out the boarder between Albania and Greece were murdered by bandits in Greece. The italian leader Mussolini demanded 50 million in compensaion but Italy refused and invaded Corfu. The COA ordered Greece to accept the demands.

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The leagues agencies:

The league was set up not just to settle international disputes. Its aim was also to promote international co-operation and to help to solve international problems. 

In the 1920s, the league's agencies proved themselves sucessful in many different areas.

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The leagues major successes:

1- The comission for refugees: This was led by Fridtjof Nansen, the Norwegian explorer. He found homes for around half a million former prisoners of war between April 1920 and 1922.

2- The mandates commission: This sucessfully governed the german and turkish colonies. They were put under its control at the paris peace conference.

3-The league organised plebiscites in various areas so that the local people could decide if they wanted to be a part of Germany i.e. The Saarland in 1935 voted to join Germnay (90.8%).

4- The leagues health organisation did effective work to help to prevent the spread of disease, especially when a Tyhus epidemic in russia is due to spread to Europe.

5- The international Labour organisation (ILO) wa sunder the control of the french socialist Albert Thomas. He helped to encourage the formation of trade unions to change/Improve working conditions across the world. The ILO was the only body set up by the League that continued to operate in its origional form after WW2.

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Reasons for the failures of the league:

1- The USA not joining, The league was dominated by European powers, but one of the major crisises was in Manchuria, a long way from Europe ....... 

-> Without the USA, France felt insecure and the league did not have the power in the pacific to counter Japan's agression.

2- Important great powers only belonged for short periods ....

-> This reduced the leagues authority. In some areas the league had little authority.

3- Members did not use the weapons available to stop agression. They never used their military sanction and only used the economic sanction half heartedly.

-> Aggressors came to believe the league was toothless and not prepared to stand up for them.

4- Members put off makimg decisions at vital moments. Meetings few and far between. Decisions made slowly and often too late.

-> Aggressors believed the league did not want to act.

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Reasons for the failures of the league:

5- The depression meant that Governments were preoccupied by problems at home...

-> This helped make some countries unstable, this helped Hitler come to power.

6- The league was bound to uphold terms of the TOV- but some terms were not satisfactory and needed to be changed...

-> This weakened the authority of the league. Some countries, such as Germany and Japan, which broke the terms, saw the league as an enemy.

7- Most of the responsibility for making the league work fell onn Britain and France but the governments of both countries were never strong supporters of the league. Often preferred to sign treaties outside it (e.g. Hoare Laval pact) ...

-> Meant the league did not have the strong leadership that it needed.

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The leagues failures:


Lack of weapons

The Ruhr and Corfu.

The failure to achieve disarmament - no progress so doesn't work.

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The Washington treaty:

Date: 1922

Aim: Disarmament- To reduce the size of their navy.

Countires involved: USA, Britain and Japan.

Terms: To reduce the number of battle ships and thus reduce the likelyhood of war.

Result: Beginnings of naval disarmament (One of the LON main aims)

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The Dawes plan:

Date: 1924.

Aim: To reconstruct and help Germany to pay reparations.

Countires involved: Germany, USA.

Terms: Fix the amount they had to pay and lent them money to do it.

Result: Make Germany feel less like they were being punished.

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The Locarno treaties:

Date: 1925.

Aim: Germany to accept its western boarders and settle any disputes without war.

Countires involved: Germany, Britain, France, Belgium,Poland, Czech.

Terms: Germany accepted where the boarders were and promised not to invade the DMZ in the                 Rhineland.

Result: Germany seen as an equal but made outside the LON and so weakens it.

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The Kellogg Briand pact:

Date: 1928.

Aim: To prevent war.

Countires involved: 65 Countries.

Terms: All countries to negotiate rather than go to war.

Result: Peace seems more likely.

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The young plan:

Date: 1929.

Aim: To reduce the amount of and help Germany to pay the reparations.

Countires involved: Germany, USA.

Terms: The amount of pay is scaled down and they have been given until 1988 to pay it.

Result: Makes Germany feel less like they were being punished.

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How did international agreements help the LON?

The Locarno treaty: 

Germany finally accepted the borders with France and Belgium that were laid out in the TOV, Britain and Italy guarenteed to protect France if Germany violated these boarders.

Germanyaccepted that the Rhineland would remain a demiliarised zone.

France and Germany agreed to settle any further disputes through the League of nations.

The French greeted the TOV with great enthusiasm. When it was announced church bells rung, fireworks were set off and celebrations carried on in to the night. The agreement seemed to resolve some problems from WW1. 

France finally felt like they had been given guarenteed border security. Germany showed more good will towards France. The agreements found a way for Germany to join the LON so they were guarenteed entry in 1926.

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How did international agreements help the LON?

The Kellogg Briand pact 1928:

1- Parties ... condemn war as a means of solving international disputes and reject it as an instrument of policy.

2- The settlement or solution of all disputes ... shall only be sought by peaceful means.

There was nothing to say what would happen if a state broke the terms of the agreement. It didn't help the LON with disarmament. The states agreed that they should keep their armys for "Self defence". People in 1928 would have said the world was safer now than in the 1920s.

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How the Dawes plan helped economical recovery:

Amerian loans helped Europe recover from economic crisis after the war.

More money available.

Rebuilt industry. 

Increased employment.

Increased international trade.

Increased profits.

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What was the depression?

The whole of the industrial world (Britain, France, Germany, Japan ect) were dependent on the USA for their money. 

They either borrowed it (Britain and France to fight WW1 and Germany to pay their reparations).

Or  they were dependent upon America buying their goods. So if America falls, so do the rest of the industrialised countries.

In October 1929, the US economy collapsed- The wall street crash.

Those countries who had borrowed money had to give it back.

Those who needed to borrow money now couldn't.

Those countries who traded with the USA lost money. 

So... The wall street crash where the US economy completely collapsed, affected the whole world.Over the next 5-6 years, all mojor European countries were plunged in to an economic depression. Millions of people lost their jobs and some countries turned to the simple solution of voting in a dictator.

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The Depression vicious circle:

World economic Depression ->

Caused ->

Hardship i.e. enemployment desperation ->

Which encourages leaders (Particularly dictators) to ... ->

Invade other countries ->

Which was met by ->

A weak responce to the league ->

Because of the effects of the ->

World economic Depression.

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What were the political effects of the WSC?

It impacted on the work of the league of nations. It destroyed the goodwill that the league had depended on in the 1920s.

In the 1930s there was even more conflict and tension. It encouraged nations to settle disputes by anger and fighting. 

So this was a competing factor that caused WW2.

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What were the effects of mass unemployment?

Millions lost their jobs as a result of the crash.

Industrialised states had a 5x higher unemployment rate than in 1923. 

30% of the USA population was jobless, so they demanded action from the politicians, but they didn't know what to do.

They origionally thought that the slump would just blow over, so the unemployment were now desperate. 

Governments were so unsure how to deal with it in their own countries they had no idea what to do on an international scale.

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What happened in Germany?

The Depression helped extreamists to come in to power, especially in Germany.

The voting public were tempted to vote for them as they offered a solution to unemployment, the voters felt like they had nothing to lose, because the democracy had failed them.

Most of the extremist parties were often nationalists.

They had a hatred of other nationsand were only concerned with their own nation. 

When one of these parties came to power they often showed an unwillingness to accept international agreements. 

The LON found it almost impossible to deal with the more violent international climate of the 1930s. Nations ignored its authority.

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What happened in Germany?

The Depression helped extreamists to come in to power, especially in Germany.

The voting public were tempted to vote for them as they offered a solution to unemployment, the voters felt like they had nothing to lose, because the democracy had failed them.

Most of the extremist parties were often nationalists.

They had a hatred of other nationsand were only concerned with their own nation. 

When one of these parties came to power they often showed an unwillingness to accept international agreements. 

The LON found it almost impossible to deal with the more violent international climate of the 1930s. Nations ignored its authority.

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What tactics did extremist leaders use?

They look to forgign policy sucesses to distract their people from troubles at home.

Dictatorships re-armed their countires and prepared the population for war. 

Political parties such as the Facist party in Italy and the German Nazis were like armies, they even had their own uniforms.

In such countries, ordinary life was militarised.

People that did no accept the party disciplin were punished. Workers lost their rights and opposition was not tolerated. 

Women, men and children were expected to join a party organisation.

Militarism in a powerful country like Germany posed a great threat to other countries. 

Soon, the dictatorships would use their power. 

Italy and Japan's militarism did much to destroy international peace in the 1930s.

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How did the Depression affect the league?

Britain and France no longer wished to sort out international disputes that would cost them money and could further damage their trade.

There was less international co-operation. 

The USA and other nations looked to take care of themselves instead of worrying about world peace and humanitarian issues.

Desperate people suffering terrible economic hardship increasingly turned to leadership offering radical solutions.

This then led to the rise of millitaristic, facist governments.

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International effects of the Depression:

Germany: It led to mass unemployment, disillusionment with the Weimar republic and the rise of the Nazis, who began to rearm and prepare to expand Germany.

Japan: Tried to solve its economic problems by invading Manchuria in order to find new markets and raw materials.

Italy: Mussolini, the Italian leader, wanted to distract attention from economic problems at home, this encouraged him to invade Abyssinia.

USA: Was pushed further into insolationism (Staying out of problems in Europe). President Roosevelt came to power in 1933 and introduced a 'New deal', in which he invested government money in large-scale public works such as the huge Tennessee Valley Dam scheme, in order to create more jobs.

Britain: Feared rearmament and war would further harm its economy, so did not rearm until late 1930s ; Tried hard to avoid war with Germany.

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International effects of the Depression:

France: Felt the effects of the Depression in the mid 1930s ; it caused internal political problems and made France delay disarmament.

USSR: It had little effect in Russia which had a few trade links with the rest of the world.

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Japan&Manchuria failure:

Manchuria is in China.

Japanease companies already owned factories, railways and ports in Manchuria. Also the Japanese army was based there to protect them. In 1931 this army took control of Manchuria.

They invaded in 1931.

They invaded as their industries needed raw materials but Japan was not self sufficient in these materials such as coal, iron , tin, rubber and oil.

Japan's industry was hit hard by the Depression, by 1931, half its factories were idle. The demand for Japan's main export silk fell sharply. In 1931 the price paid was only 1/3 of the price in 1925. So Japan had a struggle to buy the goods it needed.

Many peasants were ruined as the price they got for agicultural produce fell. They moved to the cities to search for work.

The government had difficulty controlling the power of the army and the Zaibatsu (Large industrial countries).

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What did the league do?

The LON sent a commission to Manchuria, to investigate the facts, led by the British Lord Lytton.

It was not easy for the commission to find out the truth.

Lord Lytton pointed out that the Japanese police:

"Kept away witnesses, and many Chinese were frankly afraid of even meeting members of our staff. Interviews were usually arranged in secret"

In November 1932, Lord Lytton made his report to the council of the LON. In it he condemned Japand and recommended that the Japanese should be asked to leave Manchuria. 

The assembly accepted his report in February 1933, but Japan rejected it and they left the league. 

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What did Japan call Manchuria?

In February 1932 Japan announced that Manchuria was an indendent state, and renamed it Manchuko.

Pu Yi was made the ruler.

But it was really ran by the Japanese army.

(Pu Yi was the last Chinese emperor who got overthrown in 1912).

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What did the USA do and why?


They were not in the league.

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What did Britain do and why?

Britain did not have the power to stop Japan. 

Also, the British government did not want to endanger trade with Japan.

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The league failed in Abyssinia and Manchuria as:


Weak: The leagues powers were still little more than saying 'tut tut'. The sanctions were powerless.

America: The strongest nation in the world did not join the league.

Structure: The league worked too slowly, so it took ages to do anything.Members couldn't agree but                decisions had to be unanimous.

Depression: The world wide Depression made countries try to get more land and power. They                           worried about themselves, not about world peace.

Unsuccessful: The more the league failed, the less people trusted it. Major powers ignored it.

Members: The league's main members let it down. Japan and Italy betraed it and Britain and                         France did little to help it.

Bullies: In the 1920s, the league only had little countries to deal with. In the 1930s, powerful                       countires like Japan, Italy and Germany attacked weaker ones. They were too strong for                 the league to stop them.

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Italy invading Abyssinia:

When Japan invaded Manchuria, the league faced its first real challenge.

Japan broke the rules: ignored the league's moral sanction and left the league in 1933. 

Two years after this,Italy, in 1935, having seen Japan "Get away with it" Italy decided to invade Abyssinia.

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Why did Italy invade Abyssinia?

They had Italian territories on 2 sides of Abyssinia.

Japan got away with it, so should they.

Mussolini wanted revenge for his previous defeat in 1896.

He wanted their wealth - Italy were suffering from the depression.

They know they will win.

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How did the league react to the invasion?

They warned them.

They gave them a telling off (Moral sanction).

Signed an agreement with him in 1935 (The Stresa pact).

Mussolini believed Britain and France promised to forget about his antics in Abyssinia.

A ballot was taken by the LON union in Britian in 1934-35, it showed that people supported the use of military force to defend Abyssinia is needed. 

People thought the league never actually did anything to discourgae Mussolini.

The LON put forward a plan that would give Mussolini some of Abyssinia. However Mussolini declined it (Appeasement).

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How did the league try to stop Italy, why did it f

October 1935- Mussolini's army was ready.

He launched a full scale invesion of Abyssinia.

The Abyssinians were no match for the modern Italian army, (They had tanks, aeroplanes and poison gas).

The league impossed an immediate ban on arms sales to Italy. 

They banned all loans to Italy.

Also all  imports and exports of rubber, tin and metals.

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What was the Hoare-Leval pact?

An aim to give Mussolini 2/3 of Abyssinia in return to call off the invasion.

It was put to Mussolini before it was shown to th league.

Leval told the British that if they didn't agree to the plan, the French would no longer support sanctions against Italy. 

Hoare and leval were both sacked.

The plan details were leaked to the French press. 

It was disaterous for the league.

It seemed like an act against the league.

The most damage was sanction disscussions.

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Hitler's main aims:

To get back all land lost in Versailles.

To destroy the TOV.

To unite all German speaking people.

To make Germnay bigger and to gain Lebensraum (Living space).

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Which main aims did Hitler achieve?

1- Germany after the TOV in 1919 - No aims achieved.

2- Occupation of the Rhineland 1936 - To destroy the TOV.

3- Union of Austria and Germany 1938 - To destroy the TOV, Make Germany bigger,Unite German                                                           speaking people.  

4- Occupation of the Sudetenland 1938- All aims achieved.

5- Occupation od Bohemia, March 1939 - To make Germany bigger.

6- Invasion of Danzig and the Polish corridor, September 1939 - All aimes achieved.

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Hitler's activities:

After Germany had lost WW1, and the TOV was put in place to try to prevent further German aggression. 

Hitler came in to power in 1933 and almost immediately began to destroy the TOV, which he and all Germans hated and which he had promised to destroy in his manefesto.

1933- He begins to rearm in secret : Nothing is done.

1934- Continues rearming and not bothered if people know : Nothing is done.

1935- He introduces conscription : Nothing is done. 

1936- He occupies the Rhineland : France want to stop him but Britain decide that he is "Only                                                           going in to his own backyard" so nothing is done. 

1938- March- Anschluss (Unites with Austria) : Nothing is done.

1938- September- He takes the Sudetenland : Britain and France do act. They meet Hitler in                                                                              Munich and allow him to have the land as long as he                                                                    promised not to take any more.

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Hitler's activities:

1939- He takes Bohemia Moravia : Britain and France promise to protect Poland if he attacks.

1939- He takes Poland : WW2.

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To give somebody what they want in the hope that this will satisfy them and they won't want to take any more.

The appeasement of Hitler's Germany began pretty much when he took power in 1933 and reached its peak at the Munich conference in 1938.

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Occupation of the Rhineland 1936:

Hitler began to send his army in to the area of Germany taht was forbidden by the TOV, the Rhineland.

The TOV stated that the German army must not go anywhere nearer than 50 km to the river Rhine.

By doing this, Hitler risked starting a war. The treaty said that Britain and France could use force to stop him, however Britain did not think that German soldiers in the Rhineland were a threat. 

One government advisor stated that the Germans were 'Only going in to their own backyard'. 

However the French were much more worried, as they worked out that they would need to have a million soldiers to expel the Germans.

Therefore, they did not want to risk this without British support, so nothing was done to halt the occupation.

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Union with Austria, The Anschluss 1938:

Hitler aimed to make Germany and Austria in to one German speaking country. This again was forbidden by the TOV, so Hitler had to go about it cautiously and craftily.

He began to tell Austrian nazis to make trouble by letting off bombs and starting riots. 

He wanted it to look as if the government could not control the country. 

As Hitler intended, the police could not control the violence, so Hitler said he would send in the German army to 'Restore' order.

The Austrian leader could not find a way of protecting his country from this threat so he resigned.

An Austrian Nazi took his place, and asked Hitler to send in the German army. 

German soldiers then marched into Austria by invitation. 

Soon after, Hitler merged Germany and Austria in to one.

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Occupation of the Sudetenland 1938:

Hitler used his same trick to take an area of Czechoslavakia called the Sudetenland, where 3 million German speakers lived.

He ordered his supporters there to stage riots and demonstrations, so that it would look as if the Czechs could not control their own country.

He then sent the German army to the boarder and ordered the Czechs to give up the area.

However the Czechs refused and prepared to defend themselves. 

They not only had a strong army but could also count on the support of two allies, France and the USSR.

It looked as if a German attack on Czechoslovakia would lead to a war involving at least 4 other countries.

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The declaration of war:

Britain and France now honoured their promise to Poland. On 3rd September 1939, they declared war on Germany and its ally, Italy.

And because Britain and France had great empires in Africa, Asia and the Far East, the war would soon spread from Europe to these other parts of the world, making it a world war.

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Hitler invades Czechoslovakia:

At the Munich Conference, Hitler said that the Sudetenland was the last piece of land that he wanted, however this was a big lie.

6 months later (March 1939) his army marched in to the rest of Czechoslovakia. 

Hald of the country (Bohemia-moravia) was made in to part of Germany. The other half became a new state called Slovakia.

Chamberlin by now realised that Hitler could not be trusted so he made the decision that Hitler musht be stopped from taking any more land... It was easy to see where Hitler would strike next.

He wanted the Polish corridor which had been taken from Germany in 1919. It had not yet taken back. 

Chamerlain promised that Britain would help depend Poland against Germany.

The government of France joined in this promise.

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Europe divides: In to two army camps 1939:

Dispite the new tough stand of Britain and France, Hitler carried on building up his armed forces. 

Then he made an agreement with the dictator of Italy (Mussolini), that they would help eachother in any war.

By early summer 1939, Europe was dividing in to two enemy camps.

  • Britain and France were in one camp (Protecting Poland).
  • Germany and Italy were in the other.

Germany looked sure to attack Poland.

This worried the leader of the soviet union, Stalin knew that Hitler hated the Soviet union because it was a communist country. He also knew that Hitler wanted extra land in eastern Europe. He feared a German attack on the Soviet Union. 

Stalin therefore looked for help. He offered to join Britain and France in their alliance but they did not trust him. Talks between them quickly broke down.

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The Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939:

Stalin instead turned for help to the man he trusted least: Hitler.

They signed an agreement not to fight eachother if there was a war in Poland.

In secret, they also promised to divide Poland between them after it was conqured.

The Nazi-Soviet pact amazed everyone... Overnight 2 enimies had agreed not to fight eachother. But their reasons for doing it soon became clear.

Stalin signed it so that he could be safe from Germany while he built up his forces. 

Hitler signed it so that he could attack Poland without having to worry that the Soviet army would try to stop him. 

Only a week after the two dictators had signed the pact, the German army invaded Poland.

Soviet forces invaded soon after. 

Between them, they took over the entire country.

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Steps to WW2:

Civil war in Spain : 1936 - 1939.

Reoccupation of the Rhineland: 1936.

Anchluss: 1938.

Sudetenland crisis: 1938.

Hitler takes bohemia moravia: 1939.

Italy and Germany unite: 1939.

Nazi-Soviet pact: 1939.

Germany invaded Poland: 1939.


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The Munich Conference,1938:

Who was there?:

The German leader - Adolf Hitler.

The British primeminister - Neville Chamberlain.

The French leader - Eduardo Daladier.

The Italian leader - Benito Mussolini.

Who was NOT there?:

The Czechoslovakians. 

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What happened at The Munich Conference?

The 4 leaders agreed that Hitler should be allowed to take the Sudetenland (It had 3million German speaking people) as long as he promised not to take any more land.

Hitler signed the agreement (Munich agreement).

Chamberlain hoped that this would put a stop to Hitler's territorial advances and claimed that he gained "Peace in our time" and "Peace with honour". 

Many people agreed with Chamerlain, by many did not.

Winston Churchill (Soon to replace him as priminister) claimed that it was victory for "Might over right" and that "We have sustained a defeat without war".

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Steps to WW2- 1934-37:

1933- The Germans understood to be making aircrafts by disguising funds meant to be for the                  unemployed but used it for building them instead.

1934- Hitler tried to take Austria by making Austrian nazis kill the Austrian leader. However                      Mussolini wanted to protect Austria, so he rushed troops to the Austrian boarder and warned          Hitler that he would fight to stop a Nazi takeover.

         Mussolini wanted to stop Hitler as if he took over Austria, he would be v close to Italy and              would probably invade.

When Hitler introduced conscription, Britain and France and Italy formed the Stesa front. Though it collapsed because Britain upset France then in 1936, Italy fell out with Britain and France.

1936- Germany and Italy formed an alliance. This helped clear the way for Germany to occupy                  Austria in 1938.

Hitler explained about the Rhineland "The 48 hours after the march in to the Rhineland were most nerve racking in my life. If the French had then marched into the Rhineland, we would have had to withdraw with our tails between our legs, for our military resources would have been wholly inadequate for even a moderate resistance.

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The effects of German rearmament:

1- Germany built a line of forts along the Rhine. This meant Britain and France would find it more difficult to enter Germany to stop it breaking treaties.

2- Germany could protect the great industrial area of the Ruhr. 

3-France now had German troops right on its boarder. 

4- The smaller powers saw that collective security was of little use to them and were tempted to come to terms with Germany. 

5- Hitler encouraged to take more chances. 

6- Britain and France began to rearm.

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Steps to WW2- 1934-37:

1938- Hitlers second attempt to take Austria, he made it look like Austria wanted the union. First he          ordered the Austrian Nazi party to stir up trouble, then invited the Austrian leader to                        Germany. He treatened to invade. He made it look like Austria couldn't control their country.            So he sent in his army to "help". 

Britain and France were worried. France had promised to help to protect Czech in a treaty. So Britain and Frand tried to avoid war. Finally in September the British Primeminister, Neville Chamberlain flew to meet Hitler 3 times to try to make a solution. The eventually deserted Czech and gave in to Hitler's demands for the Sudetenland.

Hitler wanted the Sudetenland and Poland next.

Chamberlain tried to avoid war by signing something with Hitler to declare peace. He said that "In spite of the hardness and ruthlessness, I thought i saw in his face, I got the impression that here was a man who could be relied upon when he had given his word".

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The cold war:

The USA: HATE communism because it doesn't allowe them freedom of speech and it takes away their rights.

USSR: HATE capitalism because it is an evil system where the very few rich people exploit the millions of poor. Communism is fair to everyone.

They join together in 1941 to defeat Hitler's Germnay.

But after their joint victory over Nazi Germany in 1945, from that point onwards the 2 countires grew to distruct and fear eachother. 

They spent the next 44 years spying on each other and building bigger and bigger weapons to shoot at eachother. They never fired their weapons so this period of history was known as the cold war.

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Politics: Only 1 political party, The Communist party. No choice. People were unable to change                   their government.

Economy: No private industry or business. No private profit. All industry and businesses owned by                  the state for the benefit of everyone.

Beliefs: Everyone equal, Belief in world revolution - that is, encouraging communism in other                       countries. Censorship of the media.

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Politics: Several parties - Voters have choice and can change their government. 

Economy: Most industry and businesses privately owned. 

Belief: Some people will be wealthier than others. Spread influence to other countries to encourage           trade investment. Very little censorship of the media.

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Key events:

1945-1947: Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe. 

1946: Churchill makes Iron curtain speech in the USA.

1947: Marshall Aid and Truman Doctrine.

1948-49: Berlin Blockade and Airlift.

1949: NATO (North Atlantic treaty organisation) formed.

1950-1953: Korean war. 

1955: Warsaw pact formed.

1960: U2 Crusis.

1961: Berlin wall built.

1962: Cuban missile crisis. 

1963: USA, USSR Hotline set up.

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What was the cold war?

A cold war is a war against an enemy but with no actaual fighting.

The expression was first used to describe the frosty atmosphere that developed between the superpowers in the years following WW2. 

The cold war started in 1945-46 and lasted for over 40 years. 

At first it was confined in Europe but during the 1950s and 1960s it spread in to Asia and then worldwide as the superpowers competed for influence or control over newly independent states, especially in Africa. 

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What were the main features of the cold war?

Spying: Both sides spied over eachother. This was mainly to find out any military developments.                 One example was the American U2 plane which could fly high enough to avoid being shot               down by soviet fighters. Spying increased the rivalry between the 2 sides.

Propaganda: Both sides used propaganda to create the worst possible image of the other side and                      to ensure that the national public opinion supported the government. The Soviet Union                    even used successes in sport expecially the olympics to illustrate the superiority of the                    communist system.

Arms race: There was competition in conventional as well as nuclear weapons. Each side wanted                      more weapons and newer technology than the other. By the 1960s, both sides had                        enough nuclear weapons to destroy eachother many times over. This was called the                        MAD theory.

Speed race: Each side competed for success in the space race. At first it was to launch the first                         satellite then the first man in space and finally the first man on the moon. Success in                     this field again was very effective propaganda for both the USA and the Soviet Union.

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What were the main features of the cold war?

Loans and aid: Each side competed to provide loans and aid to less developed and often newly                             independent states in order to win their support in the Cold war.

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Who were the superpowers?

Before WW2, there were several 'Great Powers' including Britain, France,Germany, Japan, the USA and the Soviet union. However WW2 changed this...

Germany and Japan wee defeated and seriously weakened.

France had been defeated and occupied by Germany during the war and lost its status as a great power.

Britain was victorious but almost bankrupt. 

Two countires, however, emerged even stronger and were clearly far more economically and militarily powerful than the rest of the world. 

They were the USA and the Soviet Union.

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Threats to the USA:

The Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe: To the Americans it appeared that western Europe was                                                                now vulnerable to the spread of communism from the                                                                  east. 

                                                               The USA offered and gave money in the form of                                                                          marshall aid. This meant Eastern countired got money                                                                to rebuild their country and to avoid communism.

Berlin Blockade: Berlin is the middle of east Germany and therefore vulnerable to communist                                 influence.Stalin blockaded the city by cutting off all routes in and ot from 24th June                         1948.

                        The Berlin airlift - All supplies taken in by air for 11 months until Stalin gives on                             12th may 1949. NATO formed April 1949. 

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Threats to the USA

Soviet union develops atom bomb: The USA had developed the A-Bomb by 1945 and dropped it on                                                    Japan to end WW1. The USSR developed in A-Bomb by 1949                                                      and the USA is geographically within range of Russian bombs.                                                     The USA develops the Hydrogen bomb by 1951 and the USSR                                                    by 1953. The arms race each side develops bigger weapons.  

Communist revolution China: China becomes communist in 1949. China is huge and it is also next                                              door to the USSR. This is now a gigantic communist energy.  

                                           USA won't allow China a seat on the UN council, which makes Stalin                                            very angry.    

The invasion of south Korea: North Korea is next to china and communism spread from there. This                                           is a real war and the USA make the statement that the USSR "Will                                               now use armed invasions and war" to spread communism. Things are                                           now much more frightening.    

                                          The Korean war, 25th June 1950- 27th July 1953. The USA begins                                               their "policy of containment".

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Key events:

1947: FBI begins investigating suspected communists. 

1947: HUAC set up.

1947: Hollywood 10.

1948: The Hiss case (Pumpkin Papers).

1950: Rosenbergs arrested for espionage (Spying).

1953: Rosenbergs executed.

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When was the height of anti-communist hysteria?

From 1950 - 1954. 

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What did McCarthy persuade people to believe?

They were convinced that they were surrounded by communists who were plotting to undermine the American way of life.

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What was HUAC?

The house of Un-American activities committe. 

It was set up in the 1930s, it was designed to investigate and legislate against "Forign threats".

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What was the Alien Registration Act?

Passed on 29th June 1940. 

It made it illegal for anyone in the USA to advocate, abet or teach thes desirability of overthrowing the government.

The main aim of it was to undermine the American communist party. 

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What was FELP?

The 1947, Federal Employee loyalty programme.

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What does blacklisting mean and who was blackliste

To be blacklisted would be to be put on a list of people regarded as unacceptable or untrustworthy.

320 artisrs were blacklisted as well as Charlie Chaplin and Authur Miller.

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The USA in 1945-50:

The fear of communism was intensifies by developments in the USA in the years after 1945 and was known as the 'Red scare'.

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The enemy within:

President Truman disliked communism and he often talked about 'the enemy within' meaning inside the USA. 

His reaction in March 1947 to some congressmen's accusations that he was soft on communists in the USA was to introduce FELP. 

FELP was designed to check the security risks of people working in government. 

Although the checks did not uncover any cases of spying, by 1952 more than 6.6 million federal workers had been examined. 

Around 3000 were forced to resign and more than 200 were sacked.

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The FBI:

The FBI had a strong Anti-Communist director, J. Edgar Hoover.

He was the driving influence behind the FELP, and used it to investigate government employees to see if they were members of the Communist party.

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The Hollywood 10:

Later in 1947, HUAC began to look in to communist influence in the film industry. 

There was a fear that films were being used to put over a communist messgae.

10 writers and directors had to testify before HUAC and they were asked if they had ever been members of a communist party. 

They refused to andwer, pleading the 5th amendment (Silence).

The result was jail as they were found to be in contempt of Congress. 

The Hollywood 10 were sacked and spent a year in Prison. 

There was origionally 11 but one ran away.

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Alger Hiss:

Whittaker Chambers, an editor for the Time magazine and a former communist, informed a leading member of HUAC, Richard Nixon, that Alger Hiss was a spy.

Hiss had worked for a supreme court judge.

Hiss was interrogated and discredited by Nixon, but there was little evidence to prove him to be a spy.

Later that year, Nixon and one of his assistants were invited to Chambers' farm.

Chambers had previously insisted that there had never been any espionage between himself and Hiss. 

However at the farm Chambers suddenly took Nixon aside to a pumpkin patch, pulled off the lid of a pumpkin and took out a roll of microfilm. The film had government documents, some of which had been copied on Hiss' typewriter.

The documents became known as the pumpkin papers. in 1950, Hiss was tried for perjury (lying) and was sentenced to 5 years and Nixon became known as the relentless persuer of communists.

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The Rosenbergs:

The fear of communism continued to grow because the Soviet union had exploded its first atom bomb in August 1949, several years sooner than the USA expected. 

Some Americans believe that only spies could have helped them to do that. 

That same month, Julius Rosenberg was arrested on suspicion of spying and was later tried on the charge of attempting espionage.

His wife, Ethel Rosenberg was arrested in August of that year on the same charges.

The couple had been members of the Communist party but had no links by 1949.

The government claimed that they were intending to give atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.

Both were found guilty and spent 2 years on death row and their appeals failed.

They were executed on the same day in June 1953.

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Why did Mcarthyism decline?

The main years of intense fear if communism were: 1950-1954 and it's sometimes called McCarthyism because Senator Joseph McCarthy was the man behind it.

It was a period when the USA was so scared of the spread of communism that they "Found" communists all over the place. 

Many people lost their jobs and some, like the Rosenbergs, lost their lives. 

The fear of communism in general never goes away but the McCarthy hysteria does die down in the mid 1950s.

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Opponents plot the downfall of McCarthy:

Opponents were gathering evidence and pace against McCarthy. One irony was that McCarthy ended up on his own list of suspects.

He was accused of being homosexual and a drinking problem - and this (Under his terms) would mean that he was a sterotypical communist. 

McCarthy was certainly not a communist, his secrets would have been enough to discreit him in the same way that he did to thousands of Americans.

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Eisenhower becomes president:

D Wight D. Eisenhower became president in 1953. 

Between May 1953 and October 1954, some 7000 government lost their jobs, although as before, not one was put on trial.

Eisenhower did not approve of McCarthy, he never criticised him publicly, saying he did not want to get ' down in the gutter with that guy'.

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McCarthy attacks the army:

In October 1953, McCarthy took a step too far, he began to investigate into the military which soon involved Robert Stephens, the secutary of the army.

McCarthy accused a senior general (Zwicker) who was a retired war hero, of 'not being fit to wear uniform'. This attack caused outrage widespread to many people including Predident Eisenhower.

This was a dangerous move and afterwards the army accused McCarthy of misconduct.

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Civil Rights movement key events:

1954: Segregation in Education banned.

1955: Montgomery bus boycott.

1957: Little rock 9.

1960: Lunch counter sit ins.

1961: Freedom rides.

1963: March on Washington (I Have a dream speech).

1964:The first civil rights act.

1965: Malcolm X murdered, The Voting rights act (Black Americans can vote).

1966: The Black Panther group formed.

1968: MLK murdered, Second civil rights act.

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Key developments in education to 1962:

1) Jim Crow laws were that if seperate conditions for black and whites were equal, then segregation was constitutional, This became the 'Segregation but equal' doctrine - It was to be challenged in the 1950s.

2) Chief Justice Warren said separating white children and black children, is bad because the black children do not get as good education. It is unequal and unfair - he stops it and changes the law "Seperate but equal has no place".

3) Did the brown case bring progress for the civil rights movement... 

Yes because Chief Justice Warren announced his speech stating how it must change and it raised awareness: It was a step in the right direction.

No because it all happened too slowly, the speech was vauge, 2.4m black southern Americans were still in seperate schools, the KKK re-emerged, people deliberately tried to stop de-segregation, Eisenhower did little to encourage intergration (but was forced to in 1957).

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Key developments in education to 1962:

4) Education played such an important part in the struggle for civil rights in the 1950s because black children were forced to go to schools that were quite literally rubbish and of a very poor standard.

They need a good education to get good jobs which they won't get. 

Once they get better education, it makes a stepping stone for other changes such as good jobs and better things for black Americans. 

5) Events in Little Rock high school sparked progress in civil rights because...

It was the first step to inergration.

It educated white people.

It sparked contraversey- President "No longer an issue be ignored" 

No because... 

It turned some people even more against "Mixed" race school.

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Causes of the Montgomery Bus Boycott:

Years of racism and segregation.

Specific racism on the buses: Front part for whites only, Blacks had to fill up from the back and they had to stand for white passengers.

March 1955: Claudette Colvin arrested for refusing to give up her seat.

December 1st 1955: Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat.

December 5th 1955: Montgomery Women's Political council, led by Jo Anne Robinson decided to hold a one day boycott of the buses.

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Results of the Boycott:

Martin Luther king gets involved and sets up M.I.A : Montgomery improvement assotiation.

N.A.A.C.P. prepare legal challenge to segregation laws.

Rosa Parks fined $10.

Buses empty of black passengers for 381 days. 

MLK establishes as a leader of the Civil rights movement.

1957: King sets up the SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference. 

Regime of non-violent protests begun.

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Martin Luther King:

Non Violent methods.

Litigation (Court cases) - Brown v Board of education.


Mass marches.


Picketing (Protesting).

Freedom rides.

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Malcolm X:

Meet violence with violence.

Rejected intergration and racial equality.

Avocated black power.

Emphesised black political and cultural institutions to advance in the interests of black people.


Extremist speeches.

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810 towns and cities had desegregated public areas by the end of 1961.

Publicity was gained for the civil rights movement when it was covered on TV showing non violent protests with violent opponents.

SNCC formed in 1960. 

By September 1961, there were an estimate of 70,000 black and white students using sit ins. 

April 1960 - 78 communities of students in the south had held sit ins.

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The Birmingham protests 1963:

The perfect place to expose the realities of the Jim Crow laws.

April- MLK and his followers began a campaign of freedom marches and sit ins, 30,000 involved.

Thousands were arrested, including king.

Police ordered dogs and fire hoses to be set on the protestors.

It gained widespread publicity.

An embarassed President Kennedy demanded that the Birmingham council should end segregation, he put forward the notion of a civil rights Bill - a change in the law designed to give all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public as well as the protection over the right to vote.

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The march on Washington:

To convince congress to act to support the civil rights bills/groups.

Groups organised a walk on Washington on 28th August.

Not enouhj to secure a safe passage of Kennedy's bill.

Peaceful protest.

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The Freedom Summer campaign of 1964:

10 week campaign met with strong resistance. 

At least 80 beatings, shootings,firebombings of homes, businesses and churches.

Over 100,000 arrests.

Number of black people increased only a little as a result of the campaign.

But it did focus national attention on black voting rights- Missippii had the lowest number of registered black voters.

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What did the Mississippi authorities do?

In order to vote, black people had to take a really difficult literacy test in order to register. 

They also often suffered breatings and attacks.

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What was the MFDP?

Mississippi Freedom party - More than 80,000 members.

They established 30 freedom schools in towns to adress racial inequalities.

Volunteers taught in schools.

Estimated more than 3,000 people attended and almost 70,000 by the end of the school year.

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What happened to...

James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Micheal Schwerner?

3 murdered volunteers. On June 21st they were arrested for traffic offences by a member of the KKK who was a policeman. 

They were held for several hours then released. 

They were never seen again - The KKK were alerted and their murders were planned. 

6 weeks later their bodies were discovered on August 4th. 

Goodman and Schwerner were shot. President Johnson signed the Civil rights act.

When released from prison, the KKK were waiting for them.

In 1967, seven KKK members were shortly imprisoned for their roles in killing but the court refused to try anyone for murder.

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