History Paper 2

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Poverty and Living conditions in the 1980s

  • Poor housing. 
    • One shared room for one family with one bed.
    • One toilet outside for the whole street.
    • Flee ridden bedding.
    • No heating or hot water - Less inclined to wash.
    • Very close houses.
  • Low wages.
  • Unemployment. 
  • Illness.
  • Quick spreading disease.
  • Little help for the sick, elderly and enemployed. 
  • Little food and very poor quality.
  • Reliant on charities.
  • Frequent deaths 
    • Mostly children.
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Why did the Liberal Government introduce reforms?

Changing attitudes- 

  • Poverty was often blamed on the individual, They were thought to be poor because they... 
    • Were lazy.
    • Would not work.
    • Or wasted their money.
  • Many politicians believed that each individual was responsible for their own welfare so people should work hard and save for their old age.
  • The only way to get help if you were poor was at the workhouse
    • (An instituion financed by the state where the poor did unpaid work in return for food and accomodation)
  • Conditions in the workhouses were deliberatly harsh to try to discourage people from seeking help. 
  • Charities existed to help the poor but most people relied on family for assistance. 

By 1900, the public opinion was changing-

  • People realised that poverty could be caused by many factors.
  • They also felt that the government should give some help to the poor instead of leaving it all to the charities.
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Why did the Liberal Government introduce reforms?

Social reforms-

This change in attitude was partly because of the work of social reformers.

They produced undeniable proof of the scale of poverty in Britain and its causes.

The most important reformers were:

  • Charles Booth- He carried out research in to poverty in London and published "Life and labour of the people in London" In 17 volumes from 1889 to 1902.
  • Seebohm Rowntree- He studied poverty and its causes in York and published a report called "Poverty: A study of Town life" in 1901.

Both researchers found that 28 to 31% of the population lived around the poverty line. 

The poverty line meant being unable to afford decent housing, food,clothing, health care or even an occational luxury such as a newspaper. 

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Why did the Liberal Government introduce reforms?

The Boer War-

In 1899, Britain went to war in South Africa to defend its territory. Half of those who volunteered to fight were unfit for service due to being too malnurished - around 69%.

The % of unfit recruits also varied according to where they lived.

Many had been so badly fed as children that they had not grown properly so the army had to lower its minimum height for the soldiers in order to have enough men. 

- This was very worrying for the government as unless something was done Britain would not have a strong army to defend itself. 

They set up The Committee on Physical Deterioration to investigate the issue and its reccomendations influenced the liberal programme of reform.

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Why did the Liberal Government introduce reforms?

Political Factors-

Political factors help to explain why the liberals introduced reforms:

Individual Politicians-

David Lloyd George:

  • He had a great influence and believed strongly in the reforms.
  • He had a povery stricken mother.
  • He hated the way that the upper classes dominated welsh life and he sympathised with the 'Ordinary People'. 
  • He was a very able politician and by 1908 he had risen to the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Winston Churchill:

  • Also believed that the reforms would make people better off resulting in a stronger country.
  • He had been a leading Conservative but switched sides in 1906 when the Liberals started their wefare reforms
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Why did the Liberal Government introduce reforms?-

Rivalry with the Labour Party:

  • In 1906, the newly formed Labour Party did well in the general election but were still only small:
    • Gaining 29 seats.
  • The Liberals wanted to win over ordinary people with their reforms so that they would vote Liberal rather than Labour.
  • Liberals saw the welfare reforms as a way of fighting socialism. 
    • If the working classes were healthier and happier there would be less support for the revolutionary socialist movements that were troubling France, Germany and Russia.
  • It was also hoped that the reforms would undermine support for the new labour party. The labour party were calling for pensions, education and unemplyment benefits.
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Why did the Liberal Government introduce reforms?

The threat from the Conservatives-

  • The Liberals main rivals were the Conservatives.
  • The conservatives had introduced welfare measures of their own.
  • In 1906 the Conservatives introduced the Unemployed Workmans Act to help to fight the effects of high unemployment.
    • This could be a vote winner amongst the working classes.
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What were the reforms?

Over the years 1906-1911, the liberal Government were the first Government to really make an effort to help and although these changes were limited they were the first steps to the government taking responsibility for their own people and looking after them when they need it most. 

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What were the reforms?


1906: Free school meals.

1907: School medical inspections.

1908: The Childrens act (Could not insure children).

1912: School clinics.

The Elderly:

1908: The Pensions act.

The Sick:

1911The National Insurance Act- Part 1

The Unemployed:

1909: The Labour Exchanges Act

1912: The National Insurance Act - Part 2

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Liberal Reforms: Children

1906: This act ALLOWED but DIDN'T FORCE local authorities to provide free school meals.

  This meant that children could eat at least one decent meal a day.

1907: School medical inspections- as many parents could not afford proper medical treatment.

         Every local education authority had set up a school medical service to provide regular checks.

1908: Childrens act- In the past insurance companies had paid out to parents after the death of                their children. Although parents would often kill their children to get money. 

         The act protected the children by prosecuting adults for neglect and making it illegal to insure          children.

          They set up courts to deal with child crime, special homes or Borstals to house any yound               offenders so that they didn't go to adult prisons. 

1912: Treatment in school clinics occured too.

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Liberal Reforms: Children - Limitations:

1906: Only half of Britains local authorities actually set up a free school meal service.

1912: It was left to local authorities to make these measures work so medical care varied widely.

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Liberal Reforms: The Elderly:

1908: Pensions Act- In the first budget, Lloyd George introduced a Government funded Old-Age-              Pension.

A person over 70 recieved 5 Shillings a week or 7 Shillings 6D for a couple. This was paid for by the government. 

Anyone who had an income of over £31 per year did not qualify for a state pension.

Only British citizens for the last 20 years would qualify for one.

You did not have to pay in to it.

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Liberal Reforms: The Elderly- Limitations:

1908: Pensions act could be refused tho those who did not work hard enough in their working life.

The rich could not have a Pension.

Only British Citizens of 20+ years could have one.

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Liberal Reforms: The Sick:

1911: National Insurance Act- Part 1 

It had been on the basis of the friendly society (Local Insurance Scheme) fo 2 centuries or more.

All men or women in Low paid jobs - Earning under £160 per year had to join health insurance. 

They had to pay 4d per week and each payment earned them a stamp.

Employers assed 3d of stamps, the Government paid a stamp of 2d.

Liberal posters talked of people getting 9d for 4d.

The money would be paid in to a friendly society of the workers choice, in return the worker would recieve up to 26 weeks sick pay at 10 Shillings a week from the friendly society.

There was also free medical care for the insured.

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Liberal Reforms: The Sick- Limitations:

1908: The families of the workers were not entitled to free treatment and widows did not receive pensions.

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Liberal Reforms:The Unemployed:

1909: Labour Exchanges Act- By 1913 it was putting 3000 people into jobs every working day.

1912: National Insurance Act- (Part 2)- Delt with trades like buildings, shipbuilding and engineering.

It required a further 2.5d a week per worker and 1 and 3/4d from the government, they paid for stamps on the workers card.

A worker would recieve 7 Shillings per week for up to 15 weeks during unemployment.

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Liberal Reforms: The Unemployed- Limitations:

It was not much money to support a working man and their family - Although this was deliberate as the government wanted to encourage careful saving and did not want workers to 'Sit back and enjoy' their benefits.

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Reactions to the Reforms:

The liberal reforms met with massive opposition from just about everyone:

  • The Conservatives, who felt they made peopple too dependent.
  • The Workers, because they disliked having to contribute to the National Insurance scheme.
  • The Rich, who had to pay for the reforms in their taxes.
  • The Labour party, who felt that they didn't go far enough.
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Opposition to the reforms:

Reforms had to be paid for ->

Lots of money was required ->

David Lloyd George (The Chancellor of the Exechequer) decided to get this money by taking the rich and the land owners in his 1909 budget.


Old Beliefs: Many people believed that the poor shoud look after themselves.

The house of Lords: This was stuffed full of rich and landowning men. They do not wish to pass this budget as it would mean them paying money.

Old beliefs: Many still think that the state should give no help as this made people lazy and dependent.

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Voting changes 1800-1900

  • In 1800 very few people could vote.
    • To vote was not seen as a human right.
      • Only the rich were allowed to vote : You needed a certain amount of wealth or property.

Only men could vote.

  • Electoral Reform Acts were passed in 1832, 1867 and 1884.
    • They reduced the property qualification meaning more men could vote.

By 1900, most working men could vote in the general election if they had a permanent address.

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The arguments for female suffrage

Votes for women would improve life for all women.It would mean equal working conditions, better access to education and other benefits.

Australia and New Zealand had given women the right to vote in national elections. Women in the USA had the right to vote in some states.

Many women were already involved in politics at the local level, especially on boards of education and poor law boards.

Women paid the same rates and taxes as men, so they should be able to vote for the politicians who spend the taxes.

By the early 1900s, the vast majority of men could vote. Britain was not a democracy if 50% of the adult population was denied the vote.

Many uneducated working men can vote yet many well educated and respected women cannot.

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The argument against female suffrage

Women and men had different responsibilities. Men were suited to work and politics, whereas women were suited to the home and caring roles.

Most women either did not want the vote or were not interested in it.

Women were irrational and would not vote wisley.

Giving the vote to some women would mean giving the vote to all men, some of whom were not worthy of it, e.g. alcoholics.

Women did not fight in wars, so they should not be able to vote for governments that might have to declare war. 

Middle class people will not want to help the working class.

Women are pure and should be protected from the gruby world of politics.

Voting women may develop their careers and neglect their families.

Quen Victoria:' With the vote women would become hateful, heartless and disgusting'

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The Suffragists outline:

Name: NUWSS = The national union of womens suffrage societies.

Date: 1897 (Small individual groups set up from 1867 onwards).

Leader: Millicent Fawcett.

Membership elected: No.

Members: Men and Women.

Aims: To get the vote, To improve womens rights.

Tactics: Peaceful

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The Suffragettes outline:

Name: WSPU = Womens social and political union.

Date: 1903 (As the suffragists were getting nowhere).

Leader: Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia.

Membership elected: No.

Members: Women only.

Aims: To get the vote.

Tactics: Militant and aggressive.

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The Suffragists in depth:

In 1867-73 when MP John Atuart suggested votes for women, MP's had supported the motion.

Many MP's voted in favour of women's suffrage from 1867 onwards.

Large numbers of local women's suffrage groups were formed.

By the time the Suffragists came together there were over 500 local brances.

By 1902, the campaign had gained the support of the working class.

In 1902-1902, Eva Gore-Booth gathered the signitures of 67,000 textile workers for a petition.

The leader of the group argued her case with letters and petitions,meetings.

At every election the Suffragists questioned the candidates on their opinions to womens suffrage.

By 1900 they had some sucess but not many leaders supported it- It was mainly backbench.

15 times parliament recieved a bill to give women the vote but it failed everytime.

Both parties had bigger issues than suffrage so it never got priority.

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The Suffragettes in depth:

The lack of success of the suffragists led to Emmeline Pankhurst setting up the Suffragettes in 1903.

She thought it needed to be more militant and agressive in order to succeed.

The Suffragettes disrupted many political meetings and harassed ministers: The liberal Priminister Asquith who was firmly opposed to women's suffrage, cam in to particularly heavy abuse.

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1908 Direct Action:

In 1906, the Liberals came in to power with a huge majority. 400 MPs supported the right for women to vote.

However, everytime a bill to get this made law was put before parliament, it failed and the suffragettes in particular got more and more desperate. 

By 1908, they decided that they needed to take direct action to get their point across...

They broke windows in Downing street and chained themselves to railings all in the hope of gaining mass attention. They were treated very harshly by the police and the Government.They responded with force feeding. 

The liberals then introdued the 'Cat and Mouse Act' in 1913 - This meant that hunger strikers were released from prison to recover, then returned to prison to finish their sentence. 

The Suffragettes called off direct action in 1910 but then began again in 1912 with a campaign of arson and vandalism after the failiure of the Concilliation Bill.

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Direct action: Emily Wilding Davison:

June 4th 1913 at the Epson derby Emily threw herself infront of the Kings horse in the hope of attaching a 'Votes For Women' banner to the bridal of his horse so that the photos of the king crossing the finishing line would display 'Votes For Women'. Therefore making it look like the king supported the movement. 

However this failed and Emily was trampled by the horse.She was severely injured and was in a coma for 4 days until she passed away. 

Although it was thought not to be her intention to be killed... The Suffragettes used this to say that women are willing to die for their movement and the vote. 

Emily had previously committed several violent acts for the Suffragette cause including: 

  • A bomb attack on the house of David Lloyd George- The Chancellor of the Exchequer, earlier the same year. 
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Why did the Suffragettes use violence?

The peaceful methods failed.

The more extreme the action, the more publicity they got.

To point out that the vote was really important to them and that they meant it.

They argued that violence was used against them so it was okay to respond with it back.

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Hunger strikes:

Some Suffragettes deliberatly got themselves arrested to draw attention to their cause. 

Once in prison some went on hunger strikes demanding to be treated as political prisoners.

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Were the suffragettes an effective movement?

The suffragettes didn't achieve the vote by 1914.

They divided the women's movement- From 1909 onwards, the Suffragists separated themselves from the suffragettes.

Suffragette violence turned some MP's and some of the public against female suffrage.

However, The suffragette's actions meant that the issue of female suffrage was never forgotten.

Suffragette members (WSPU) were effective campaigners, publishing posters and leaflets. Their newspaper 'Votes for women' had a circulation of 40,000 by 1914.

Many women (and men) admired the willingness of the suffragettes to suffer for their cause. The hunger strikes gained the suffragettes alot of sympathy and support. 

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Opposition to the Suffragettes:

The Suffragettes genuinley believed that their actions would work and that they would get the vote for women.

They did not. 

It was the work of the women in WW1 that finally won the women's right to vote. During the Suffragette campaigns, what often happened was that their aggression turned people away from their cause rather than towards it. 

Millicent Fawcett (The Suffragist leader) believed that the Suffragette movement really damaged their chances.

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How did women contribute to the war:

Women on the front line:

Women did not fight in the trenches, but they were close to the front-line action... 

The hospitals were mainly staffed by female nurses.

Thousands of women worked for volutary organisations. In France and Belgium, the Salvation Army provided soup kitchens for soldiers and front line troops, many of which were run by women.

The Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) was formed in 1918. These women worked mainly as drivers, secretaries and officials on the Western Front.

Women and recruitment:

Female members of the Active Service League encouraged young men to enlist. 

The Mothers' Union published posters criticising mothers who stopped their sons from joining up.

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How did women contribute to the war:

Women and Work:

Government departments took on 200,000 women during the war. 

There was a bit more resistance to women workers in industry. Trade unions feared women would work for less and wages for the male workers would drop. However by the end of the war, hundreds of thousands of women were working in industry e.g, 800,000 in engineering alone.

Around 260,000 women worked on Britain's farms in the Womens Land Army, helping farmers to produce as much food as possible.

Women even kept some of the works football teams going during the war.

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How did women contribute to the war:

Women and munitions:

The best known work done by women was in the munition factories.

Thousands of women worked in private and government owned munition factories. 

On one hand, the munitions work gave women status and money. On the other hand, it was dangerous work because of the probibility of explosions, also there was adverse health effects of dangerouse chemicals in the munitions.

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Why were some women given the vote in 1918?

The campaign to win women the vote continued during WW1 although the protests and violence stopped:

All men over the age of 21 could vote.

All Women over the age of 30 could vote.

Around 9 million women gained the vote, usually older, better- off women.


When the war began, most of the differences between Suffragists and Suffragettes disappeared. They raised money for the women who were left behind when their men went off to fight. The Pankhursts contributed on encouraging young men to volunteer for the army.

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Outline for votes for women:

radual increase in the number of men who could vote.

ed some people to think women should have the same right..

pponents believed they should not, because they said women were not... 

ational, they were too emotional: they had different ...

I nterests to men, i.e. they were ...

nly interested in marriage, children and running the home and they were consequently...

nable to form a political opinion, so some became...

uffragists, set up in 1897 and led by Milicent Fawcett.

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Outline for votes for women:

A s the peaceful methods did not work, some women took more...

R adical and millitant approach and set up the...

S uffragettes in 1903, led by...

E mmeline Pankhurst and her 2 daughters. They used a ...

N umber of tactics - demos - disruption -vandalism- arson - hunger strikes ect, to gain... 

ttention and publicity. None of it worked and every time the idea of women voting was put forward in Parliament they ...

ost. They raised the issue but it was women's contribution to WW1 that won the vote.

= Glorious Arsenal

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Grandma's Cat:

Great war: WW1 begins in August 1914 and ends on November 1918.

Recruitment: Lots of propaganda is used to get men to join the army. It isn't enough and in 1916                        the Government introduced conscription.

Air raids: Zeppelin air ships launched bomb attacks, mostly on east coast towns but also on                           London.

News: This was strictly controlled by the Government so people did not hear anything bad about the           war.

Defence of the Realm act: (Dora) This was passed in 1914 and allowed the government to control                                          many aspects of British life.

Minister of Munitions: Lloyd George ran this from 1915 to regonise the supply of bullets, shells ect                                   to the British army.

Asquith: The Priminister at the start of the war.

Shortages: There were shortages of munitions- shorted out by Lloyd George and food (Rations).

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Grandma's Cat:

Censorship: In order to keep of morale, the government strictly controlled the information people                       could get about WW1.

Asquith: Replaced as PM by Lloyd George : 7th December 1916.

Total war: This was the first war to affect civillians as well as soldiers.

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Why were some women given the vote in 1918?


Because so many of the men were fighting for their country, the Government decided on a new Representation of the People Act to give all men the vote.

Since the Government was bringing in a law giving the vote to all men, the suffragettes and suffragists argued that they should give votes to women in the same law.

They publicised the massive contribution of women to the war effort. Their case was also helped when David Lloyd George became Prime Minister in December 1916. 

He supported female suffrage.

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Why were some women given the vote in 1918?


By June 1917, most members of the Government seemed to accept that some women would get the vote in the new Act.

Suffragist leader Milicent Fawcett decided to accept the restriction that only women over 30 would get the vote. 

The Act was approved by the House of Commons in 1917 and then by the House of Lords in January 1918.

Women voted in their first general election in December 1918. 

All women over 21 finally got the vote in 1928.

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The outbreak of WW1:

Both the Suffragists and Suffragettes stopped campaigning for the vote onece WW1 broke out on August 4th 1914 and they instead channeled all of their energy in to the war effort.

Britains army of 250,000 men was too smalland Lord Kitchener (The secretary of state war) said that he would need at least 1 million men.

So the Government set about to producing propaganda posters to encourage men to join up. 

In the first month 500,000 men had signed up by March 1916 , 2 and a half million had volunteered. 

However it was not enough as so many were killed or injured so it became necessary to inroduce conscription in January 1916. This meant that all single men aged 19-41 had to join up and by May this was changed to include all married men too.

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How were civilians in Britain affected by the war?

Government Control- DORA-

In August 1914, the Government passed the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA).

This act gave the Government wide-ranging powers over the media, food production, industry and many other areas.

The Government took over the coal mines. Miners were not conscripted into the army and the Government fixed prices and wages.

Similar actions was taken with the railways and shipping.

Early in 1915, David Lloyd George became Minister of munitions, he set up new state run factories.

By the end of the war, the Government controlled about 20,000 factories.

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How were civilians in Britain affected by the war?

Food and rationing:

DORA also allowed the Government to control food supplies.Britain did not suffer serious shortages before 1916 but food prices did raise dramatically (about 60%) so lots of food was imported from North America.

When German U-boats began to attack shipping boats on a large scale the situation became serious. 

The Government tried to increase food production by bringing all available land into production.

Voluntary rationing schemes began in 1916 but they failed so compulsory rationing was introduced in 1918.

Sugar,meat,butter, jam and margarine were all rationed. Rationing was generally supported as it was fair and kept prices under control.

There was a black market in goods,but under DORA penalies for illegal trading were very severe.

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How were civilians in Britain affected by the war?

Civilian casualties:

Casualties were very light in britain compared to military casualties. 

Nevertheless, about 1500 civilians were killed by enemy actions.

In December 1914,German warships shelled towns in north east England.

In January 1915, giant Zepplin airships began bombing raidson England. 

They made a total of 57 raids.

In May 1917, German Gotha bombers began the first 27 raids on British towns.

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How were civilians in Britain affected by the war?


DORA also allowed the Government to control newspapers and other media during the war.

There was mass censorship- Nothing bad about the war could be published. The war attitudes must remain positive. 

In order to win the war, the nation needed 100% support without it, vital war equiptment could not be made. 

The Government encouraged people to think that they were fighing the war to help 'Brave little Belgium'. 

They also did nothing to stop the stories about German soldiers bayonetting children.

As the war went on, people realised that it wouldnt 'all be over by Christmas' . Although disillusionment increased there was no evience of Britain losing their determination.

At the start of the war propaganda was barely needed. Almost everyone was Anti-German.

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The War Propaganda Bureau

In the early war, the Government established a secret was Propaganda Bureau.

One of its first efforts was appoint a committee to see if some of the German atrocticies had happened.

A report published in 1915 concluded (on little evidence) that many of the atrocities had occured.

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Department of information

Later in the war, Lloyd George set up a department of information which co-ordinaed propaganda efforts, it had 4 main functions:

Providing propaganda material to shape opinion, home and abroad.

Supervising propaganda material for cinema use.

Gathering political information from abroad.

Controlling war news released from newspapers.

March 1918 it became the Ministry of informatio, under the leadership of Lord Beaverbrook, owner of the Daily express newspaper.

It is difficult to judge the effectiveness of the propaganda although the Anti-German propaganda was widely believed. Though it may have been more important in neutral countires like the USA.

Most propaganda was simply information that the Government wanted to present in the most favourable way. 

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Joining the war

Volunteers aged 19-30 were asked to step forward. 

Many people rushed to join at first as they felt it was their duty to fight for 'King and country' and many felt it was a big adventure (2.46 million by January 1916).

However,the number of volunteers dropped so the Government introduced conscription ( The National Registration Act 1915 and the Derby Scheme, October 1915)  ,by 1918 this was extended to include all men aged 18-51.

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Conscientious objectors

"Men who refused to go to war due to their anti war beliefs".

16100 people refuded to join the army stating that it was wrong to fight.

Of these, 9500 helped the war effort by workingbehind the lines of non-fighting roles by doing essential work not connected with the armed forces. 

The remainder of people were sent to prison (Mostly religious).

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What did Lloyd George do as Minister Of Munitions?

He transformed the British economy.

By the end of the war, the ministry had employed 65,000 staff and had 3 million+ workers due to a previous no staff.

Lord kitchener thought that 4 machine guns per battalion may be useful but more of a luxury: Lloyd george said "Take Kitcheners figure, square it, Multiply it by two then double it again for good luck".

The army began the war with 1,330 machine guns. 

During the war, 240,506 were manufactured... all thanks to Lloyd George.

Lloyd George got an indian prince to finance the manufacturing of the stokes light mortar ( The best war weapon) out of his own pocket.

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What did Lloyd George do as Prime Minister?

1916 December: He set up a ministry of food. This was responsible for the poster campaign which encouraged people to grow their own veg and not waste food.

1918 February: The rationing of meat, butter and margarine was introduced in the counrty. 

There was enough food for all to buy their ration each week with their card entitling them to half a pound of sugar a week. 

Meat rations of 3/4 of a pound per week, then tea and butter followed.

The rationing continued until 1921.

The Government introduced rations to ensure that the British people did not suffer too much during the war.

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Did people support the war?

In the early years there was little opposition, some socialists and pacifists protested against it but they were drowned out by the patriotic feeling.

Ramsay Mcdonald has to resign as Labour Party leader as he did not support the war but his party did.

When conscription was introduced in 1916- fifty MP's including Liberal leaders voted against it.

Only 16,000 out of a possible 8 million affected by conscription actually refused to enlist.

From 1914-1916 the British people were consistent in their support for the war. Though many said the battle of the Somme was a turning point.

In the weeks after the end of the battle the Government faced serious criticism as politicians and soldiers publically questioned why the war was being fought.

"We are slowly but surely killing off the best of the male population"- Lord Landsdowne's - September 29th 1917.

The battle of the Somme appeared to change the mood in Britian: There was little excitement.

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Did people support the war?

Criticism of the war leadership continued in to 1917.

Many socialists criticised the war from the start but they were in minority.

Even in 1917 when people were prepared to question the war leadership, there was still little doubt that the war against Germany should be pursued to a final victory.

The end of the war in November 1918 was greeted with much relief and triumph.

People were aware by then of the human and financial costs of the war in Briain and other places and were desperate tp rebuild their lives and country.

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What role did the Suffragettes play in the war eff

They halted their campaign for the vote. 

They helped both at home and at the front.

The Suffragette leader Emmeline Pankhurst staged a large demonstration demanding that women were allowed to work in munition factories. 

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What other women's groups were there and what did

The Suffragists worked to pursuade British men to join the army.

The order of the white feather encouraged women to give women to give white feathers to young men not in the army.

The Mothers' union published posters urging their sons to join up.

The women members of the Active service took an oath to promise to encourage young men to join up to the army.

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Why were women workers needed?

At home women took over jobs of men who joined the army.

As there are not enough people to fill the roles necessary to help the country to survive.

Many men were still fighting, injured or dead therefore were unfit to work.

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What were the types of work women did?

Jobs which had been previously thought of as mens jobs.

Over 120,000 women trained as nurses and from 1917, women were allowed to join and serve in non combat roles.

Clerk and office jobs were also filled- Around 200,000.

Fire fighters, Chimney sweeps, painters, black smiths and bakers.

London County Council trained women to be plumbers, carpenters and electricians.

Some even served as police officers dispite the suffragettes previously fighting policemen.

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What were the dangers of working in munition facto

It was tiring and dangerous.

Pitric acid turned their skin yellow. 

As the war went on, shifts got longer and longer.

There were disasterous accidents such as the explosion at Silvertown  in January 1917.

In August 1916, medical reports publicised the effects on women on handling TNT explosives: This included breathing difficulties,rashes, digestion problems, blood poisioning and even brain damage.

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How did WW1 change life for women?

Women gained access to a whole range of jobs previously only just for men.

1.6 million extra women worked.

260,000 served in the women's land army. 

In 1918, the women's amry Auxiliary corps (WAAC) was founded although this didn't involve front line fighting.

Married women took on their husbands jobs, many singles took on factory jobs.

There was a huge change in attitudes.

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What was the effect on most women of the work they

It was women's contribution to the war effort which make sure they would be granted the vote.

Although the majority of British women before the war had not actively supported the campaign for the vote, the experience of war work changed attitudes in many important ways.

Women felt more independent and aware that they were capeable of making a much more important contribution to society then men had previously allowed.

They began to feel equal to men.

Women shared the burdens and dangers of winning the war, why should they not have the same rights as men?

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What was the effect on many men on women's work?

But mens attitudes began to change to. 

The sight of women doing men's work had challenged stereotypes and traditional jobs about women.

This made it much harder for the opponents of women's suffrage to argue that they were not capeable of voing responsibly.

The fact that wartime government became a coalation of all the political parties also helped the women's cause.

The arguement used to deny them the vote before the war were now put to one side, especially once Lloyd George, a prominent supporter of women's rights, became prime minister in December 1916.

At last there was recognition that, when the time came to deal again with the issue of the franchise, women have to be included.

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How did Asquith's attitudes to women's suffrage ch

"How could we have carried on the war without women" - He is showing his appriciation.

They have been just as active and helpful as men.

He thinks that they should have their voices heard and that they should have some power. 

Women have been as least "As active and efficient as men".

"I find it impossible to withhold from women the power and right of making their voices heard"

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Representation of the people Act 1918

As the war continued, it was obvious that the franchise would need to be reviewed.

Under the 1867 and 1884 Reforms Act, the vote was given to male householders who could prove that they had lived in the same place for 12 months.

Then technically by 1916, all overseas serving soldiers lost the vote: Although it was thought that after the war they should have it after all they'd faced.

If, then, Parliament would have to review the male franchise, there would be an opportunity to introduce votes for women. So this is exactly what happened.

Proposals for extending the franchise were agreed, though Parliament still could not bring itself to grant women the vote on the same basis as men. 

By the terms of the representation of the peoples act 1918, all adult males over the age of 21 were given the vote. 

However only those women over 30 who were householders or wives of householders were allowed to vote.

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Why were the British people so angry with Germany?

After 4 years of war and fighting the Germans, the British people were not inclined to forgive and forget.

Although Britain had little damage, their casualty rate was high: Almost every family was touched by bereavement.

With Germany being blamed for the war, people wanted revenge.

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The effect of propaganda on the British attitude t

Most propaganda showed Germans as brutes and barbarians.

There was little pity for the Germans from Britain eventhough the casualty rate in Germany was way higher than Britain.

There was an almost universal desire stirred up by the popular press to make Germany pay: 

Headlines such as: "Hang the Kaiser" summed up the mood.

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What did Churchill say about the British people?

"The Prime minister and his principle colleagues were astonished by the passions they encountered in the constituencies. The brave people whom nothing had daunted had suffered too much. Their feelings were lashed by the popular press in to a fury. The crippled and mutilated soldiers darkened the streets. Every cottage had its empty chair. Hatred of the beaten foe, thirst for his just punishment, rushed up from the heart of deeply injured millions"

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What was the effect of the upcoming election?

It was at the end of the war in 1918 in Britain.

This made matters worse as a politician promised harsher treatment to Germany. 

Even David Lloyd George who fully understood the dangers of treating Germany harshly was also swept along with the anti-German feeling.

He promised at a meeting in Bristol that 'Germany must pay to the uttermost farthing, and we shall search their pockets for it.

After the election, as preparation for the Paris peace conference began, he would come to regret having encouraged the British people's thirst for revenge.

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What problem did Lloyd George have?

Lloyd George was one of the outstanding personlities of the conference in Paris in 1919.

However, he had a difficult task in balancing his own personal views about how to treat Germany and representing those of the British people.

He was under alot of pressure to inist on harsh peace, eventhough he knew that it would be a disaster to leave Germany resentful and more likely to cause trouble in the future.

The next time the conference assembled, In January 1919, Lloyd George was not alone in realising that the more extreme demands of the British public could never be met. 

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