History exam year 8

The gunpowder plot of parliment.

oliver cromwell charles 1

civil war

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 29-03-11 19:03

Dates to remeber

  • Gunpowder plot 1605
  • Target of the gunpowder plot James 1
  • Man who recieved ltter about the gunpowder plot Monteagule
  • Suspct who sent letter to james 1 Tresham
  • Gunpowder specialist and plotter Guy fawkes
  • Chief gunpowder plotter Robert catesby
  • King james chief minister Robert cecil
  • Plotters names Robert catesby guy fawkes thomas and robert winter christopher and john right thomas percy
  • Who set up the plotters Robert Cecil
  • how did he do that Emolyed treshman to work for him possibly wrote the letter to monteagle
  • why he wanted to discredit the catholics so thatt prtestant became more popular and more powerful
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Charles 1 and the cause of the civil war

The Gunpowder Polt

Main People; Robert Catbesy- leader Guy Fawkes- Explosive Expert

What Happened was it was a big set up against the Catholics. It was so that Spanish would shut up. This was because many things happened that points towards a Conspiracy against the catholics this was because it would shut them up too. This was because there was no gunpowder records that year and then how did the get so close to house of Parliament when one of the guys are on a warning.Then why did Robert Castbesy when his was caring a cross and tried to turn himself in.

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The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in 1642, would have ended with the public execution of Charles. His most famous opponent in this war was Oliver Cromwell - one of the men who signed the death warrant of Charles.

No king had ever been executed in England and the execution of Charles was not greeted with joy. How did the English Civil War break out?

As with many wars, there are long and short term causes.

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The status of the monarchy had started to decline under the reign of James I. He was known as the "wisest fool in Christendom". James was a firm believer in the "divine right of kings". This was a belief that God had made someone a king and as God could not be wrong, neither could anyone appointed by him to rule a nation. James expected Parliament to do as he wanted; he did not expect it to argue with any of his decisions.

However, Parliament had one major advantage over James - they had money and he was continually short of it. Parliament and James clashed over custom duties. This was one source of James income but Parliament told him that he could not collect it without their permission. In 1611, James suspended Parliament and it did not meet for another 10 years. James used his friends to run the country and they were rewarded with titles. This caused great offence to those Members of Parliament who believed that they had the right to run the country.

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In 1621, James re-called Parliament to discuss the future marriage of his son, Charles, to a Spanish princess. Parliament was outraged. If such a marriage occurred, would the children from it be brought up as Catholics? Spain was still not considered a friendly nation to England and many still remembered 1588 and the Spanish Armada. The marriage never took place but the damaged relationship between king and Parliament was never mended by the time James died in 1625.


Charles had a very different personality compared to James. Charles was arrogant, conceited and a strong believer in the divine rights of kings. He had witnessed the damaged relationship between his father and Parliament, and considered that Parliament was entirely at fault. He found it difficult to believe that a king could be wrong. His conceit and arrogance were eventually to lead to his execution

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From 1625 to 1629, Charles argued with parliament over most issues, but money and religion were the most common causes of arguments.

In 1629, Charles copied his father. He refused to let Parliament meet. Members of Parliament arrived at Westminster to find that the doors had been locked with large chains and padlocks. They were locked out for eleven years - a period they called the Eleven Years Tyranny.

Charles ruled by using the Court of Star Chamber. To raise money for the king, the Court heavily fined those brought before it. Rich men were persuaded to buy titles. If they refused to do so, they were fined the same sum of money it would have cost for a title anyway!

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In 1635 Charles ordered that everyone in the country should pay Ship Money. This was historically a tax paid by coastal towns and villages to pay for the upkeep of the navy. The logic was that coastal areas most benefited from the navy's protection. Charles decided that everyone in the kingdom benefited from the navy's protection and that everyone should pay.

In one sense, Charles was correct, but such was the relationship between him and the powerful men of the kingdom, that this issue caused a huge argument between both sides. One of the more powerful men in the nation was John Hampden. He had been a Member of Parliament. He refused to pay the new tax as Parliament had not agreed to it. At this time Parliament was also not sitting as Charles had locked the MP's out. Hampden was put on trial and found guilty. However, he had become a hero for standing up to the king. There is no record of any Ship Money being extensively collected in the areas Charles had wanted it extended to.

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Charles also clashed with the Scots. He ordered that they should use a new prayer book for their church services. This angered the Scots so much that they invaded England in 1639. As Charles was short of money to fight the Scots, he had to recall Parliament in 1640 as only they had the necessary money needed to fight a war and the required authority to collect extra money.


In return for the money and as a display of their power, Parliament called for the execution of "Black Tom Tyrant" - the Earl of Strafford, one of the top advisors of Charles. After a trial, Strafford was executed in 1641. Parliament also demanded that Charles get rid of the Court of Star Chamber

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By 1642, relations between Parliament and Charles had become very bad. Charles had to do as Parliament wished as they had the ability to raise the money that Charles needed. However, as a firm believer in the "divine right of kings", such a relationship was unacceptable to Charles.In 1642, he went to Parliament with 300 soldiers to arrest his five biggest critics. Someone close to the king had already tipped off Parliament that these men were about to be arrested and they had already fled to the safety of the city of London where they could easily hide from the king. However, Charles had shown his true side. Members of Parliament represented the people. Here was Charles attempting to arrest five Members of Parliament simply because they dared to criticise him. If Charles was prepared to arrest five Members of Parliament, how many others were not safe? Even Charles realised that things had broken down between him and Parliament. Only six days after trying to arrest the five Members of Parliament, Charles left London to head for Oxford to raise an army to fight Parliament for control of England. A civil war could not be avoided.

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Time line

1603 - Elizabeth I dies, James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.

1605 - Gunpowder plot.

1625 - Death of James I. Charles I becomes king.

1642 - English Civil War starts.

1644 - Battle of Marston Moor.

1645 - Battle of Naseby.

1649 - Charles I exectued. Oliver Cromwell rules England as Lord Protector.

1658 - Death of Oliver Cromwell. His son Richard Cromwell takes over as Lord Protectorbut resigns after 18 months.

1660 - Charles II becomes King of England. England is a monarchy once more.

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The House of Stuart

Name of King/Queen | Date as ruler of Britain

King James I | 1603 - 1625

King Charles I | 1625 - 1649

King Charles II | 1660 - 1685

King James II | 1685 - 1688

Queen Mary and King William | 1689 - 1702

Queen Anne | 1702 - 1714

King George I | 1714 - 1727

King George II | 1727 - 1760

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6 Facts about the English Civil War

1 - Civil War is a war within the same country.

2 - English Civil war started in 1642. Ends in 1649. It is 7 years long.

3 - Fought between the King and Parliament.

4 - Supporters of King known as Royalist of Cavaliers.

5 - Supporters of Parliament known as Parliamentarians or Roundheads.

6 - Parliment won!

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Social Life in 1650's

Banned by the Puritans | Playing Football on a sunday. | It distracted you from God.

Getting hair cut or beard trimmed on a sunday. | "

Mending a dress on a sunday. | "

Walking to the next village on a sunday. | "

Using a boat, ferry, barge, horse or coach. | "

Dancing, singing or playing an intrument. | "

Selling goods on a sunday. | "

Walking for no reason. | "

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v              Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April 1599 in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire who studied at Cambridge University.   He became MP for Huntingdon in the parliament of 1628 – 1629  He had a large expanding family a widowed mother, wife, Elizabeth Bourchier and nine children. In August 1620, just a few months after his twenty-first birthday, Oliver Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier at St Giles’s church in Cripplegate, London.  zwho Elizabeth had been born in 1598, the eldest of twelve children (nine sons and three daughters) of Sir James Bourchier and his wife Fr They lived in Huntingdon until 1631, and then they stayed in St Ives from 1631 to 1636 and then settled in Ely from 1636 until late 1646 and thereafter in London. By the early 1650s Elizabeth and her family were living in lodgings adjoining Whitehall Palace and in spring 1654, soon after her husband became Lord Protector, they moved into newly redecorated apartments in Whitehall Palace itself and at Hampton Court.  

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As Elizabeth moved here she was sometimes called ‘Her Highness the Lady Protectress’ He began to make his name as a radical Puritan when, in 1640, he was elected to represent Cambridge, first in the Short Parliament and then in the Long Parliament.Then the Civil war broke out between King Charles I and   experience, he created and led a superb force of cavalry, the 'Ironsides', and rose from the rank of captain to that of lieutenant-general in three years. He convinced parliament to establish a professional army - the New Model Army - which won the decisive victory over the king's forces at Naseby (1645). The king's alliance with the Scots and his subsequent defeat in the Second Civil War convinced Cromwell that the king must be brought to justice. He was a prime mover in the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649 and later wanted to win conservative support for the new republic by suppressing radial elements in the army. Cromwell became army commander and lord lieutenant of Ireland, where he crushed resistance with the massacres of the garrisons at Drogheda and Wexford (1649).Cromwell then defeated the supporters of the king's son Charles II at Dunbar (1650) and Worcester (1651), successfully ending the civil war. In 1653 he dissolved the rump of the Long Parliament and, after the failure of his Puritan convention made himself lord protector but in 1657 he refused the offer of the crown. Lord Protector Cromwell reorganized the national church, established Puritanism, readmitted Jews into Britain and presided over a certain degree of religious tolerance.

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Abroad, he ended the war with Portugal (1653) and Holland (1654) and allied with France against Spain, defeating the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes (1658). Cromwell died on 3 September 1658 in London. After the Restoration his body was dug up and hanged.

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This was caused by King Charles and not giving the Parliament the power they wanted and this caused arguments then the tried to aersest 5 senoir MP's. This what started a Civil war that lasted for for 5 years and so many new revelation like the first paid and professional army called the New model army this is helped the Parliamentarian win the war. This meant the Royalist lost the war because of this smart scheme.

The army was different this is because you could be the poorest man in the world yet you then you could became general because you are smart.

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell

Good Thing

He was smart and lead england to peace. He won ever war he was in control of. He also give england more from the voice of the people.

Bad Thing

Ireland it was a sad because he ruined a population and stuffed many things up and did bad things like burning the church down and slaughtering women and children in Drogheda. He had made some silly and very dumb laws when was king like no Christmas. He also was the same as Charles really closing down Parliament constantly.

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English Civil War 1642

  • 1625 Charles I is King and marries a french catholic, Henrietta Maria.
  • 1628- He does Personal Rule (rule without Parliament).
  • He is advised by the unpopular Duke of Buckingham.
  • POLITICAL- his personality, personal rule, unpopular advisors.
  • RELIGIOUS- Changes to Church with Archbishop Laud, punishment of Puritan pamphlet writers, Prayer book rebellion.
  • FINANCIAL- Has to call parliament as in debt after war with Scots, Illegal taxes.
  • SHORT TERM- Grand remonstrance, 19 propositions.
  • 1645- creation of new model army.
  • 1649- Execution of Chalres I.
  • 1653- Rump parliament dissolved, Cromwell becomes Lord protector.
  • 1658- Death of Cromwell.
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Oliver Massey


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