Henry VIII: Foreign Policy

Revision cards for Henry VIII's foreign policy, covering the First French War, Second French War, diplomacy and the annulment.

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The First French War

1508 - The Holy League was established.

1511 - England joined the Holy League as a junior member.

1512 - Henry supported Ferdinand of Spain in his attack on France, but Ferdinand siezed Navarre for himself, then withdrew and made peace with France.

1513 - Henry led 25000 troops in the Battle of the Spurs, but since 1511 he had spent £960000 when his annual income was £110000. While he was in France, Catherine of Aragon and the Earl of Sussex defeated James IV at the Battle of Flodden.

1514 - Henry made peace with France, but was able to keep Therouanne, Tournai and the pension arrears.

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The Second French War

1519 - Charles and Francis began fighting for control of the Holy Roman Empire.

1522 - The war began.

1523 - Henry persuaded the Duke of Bourbon to help him, but when the Duke of Suffolk led an attack against France, Bourbon failed to provide any help.

1524 - Wolsey went behind Henry's back to negotiate for peace.

1525 - Charles defeated Francis at the Battle of Pavia, proving that he didn't need England's help. He challenged Henry to raise an army, but when Henry failed Charles restored Francis as king of France and his ally, then refused to marry Henry's daughter, Mary. In England, there was unrest due to the Amicable Grant, as Wolsey had to increase taxes to pay for Henry's foreign exploits.

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Diplomacy

1518 - The Treaty of London. 20 European leaders attended.

1519 - Charles and Francis began fighting for the Holy Roman Empire, Charles won.

1520 - The Field of the Cloth of Gold.

1521 - The Calais Peace Conference.

1522 - The Second French War began.

1525 - Henry signed the Treaty of More with France.

1526 - England joined the League of Cognac against Charles, but only as a protector, not as a full member.

1527 - Two more Anglo-French treaties were signed, the Treaties of Westminster and Amiens. Charles sacked Rome, taking Pope Clement VII prisoner.

1529 - Charles defeated Francis as the Battle of Landriano.

1543 - England and France went to war again.

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The King's Great Matter

1518 - Catherine of Aragon's last pregnancy.

1526 - Henry began to woo Anne Boleyn.

1527 - Henry initiated investigations into the validity of his first marriage. He and Anne agreed to marry after his annulment. Catherine wrote to Charles V, her nephew, for help. He then sacked Rome and took the Pope prisoner, meaning Henry couldn't obtain a papal dispensation for his annulment.

1528 - Campeggio was sent from Rome to hear the case.

1529 - Campeggio adjourned proceedings. Wolsey was disposed of and the Reformation Parliament was established.

1530 - The clergy were charged with praemunire, and were forced to pay £118000 for their pardon.

1531 - Henry was named as 'Supreme Head of the Church in England, in so far as the law of Christ allows'.

1532 - Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates.

1533 - Act in Restraint of Appeals to Rome.

1534 - Act of Supremacy.

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The Break with Rome

1516 - Henry challenged papal authority in order to appoint Wolsey bishop of Tournai.

1530 - Cranmer was appointed ambassador to Charles V.

1532 - Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates.

1533 - Act in Restraint of Appeals to Rome.

1534 - Act of Supremacy.

1537 - The Matthew/Protestant Bible was published.

1538 - Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry.

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