Theories of Health Belief - HBM
-> Severity/Susceptibility/Cues to Action/Costs/Benefits
- Parents beliefs + attitudes correlated with administering asthma medication
- costs e.g. chemist being far away affected if it was given
-> Costs of the health behaviour had a high impact on administering medication.
Theories of Health Belief - Locus of Control
Locus of Control?
-> Internal = you have control
-> External = fate
-> Wallston - High internal = quit smoking
Normal et al
- Questionnaire on smoking/diet/exercise/alcohol made index and correlated with LOC
- Positive correlation with Internal LOC and index
- Negative correlation with External LOC and index
-> Health behaviours can be increased if we make people feel in control.
Theories of Health Belief - Self Efficacy
-> Believe in ability
-> Bandura - due to past experiences
-> Vicarious experiences = someone else/Verbal persuassion-"you can do it"/Emotional arousal - too much anxiety
Murray and Mcmillan
- SR on breast screening behaviour, health beliefs/motivations and confidence
- More confidence = more breast screening
-> Self efficacy = predictor of health behaviour
Theories of Health Belief - Evaluation
P.apps - e.g. Murray - increase self efficacy by showing others success
e.g. Murray - down to own beliefs
e.g. Norman - Blames Locus of Control
e.g. Becker - only focus' on five factors as theory of health belief - ignores LOC
Methods of Health Promotion - Media Campaign
-> Provides information to change behaviour
-> e.g. Chip pan fire ad 1976-1984
- See effect of media campaign - regions in UK
- Gathered statistics and 2 surveys
- Chip pan fires reduced (25%) + awareness of them increased (12% to 28% Yorkshire)
-> Effective method of promoting healthy behaviour
Methods of Health Promotion - Legislation
-> Forced into healthy behaviours with a law
-> Operant conditioning
- Questionnaire on helmet usage, knowledge of law, ad campaigns and peer pressure
- Howard county with law 11.4 to 37.4 helmet usage - biggest improvement
-> Law is more effective than media campaign.
Methods of Health Promotion - Fear Arousal
-> Increases percieved threat
-> gives emotional arousal which causes change in behaviour
Janis and Feshback
- Min - diagrams/xrays of tooth decay/ Moderate- less graphic images than strong/ Strong - gruesome pictures of tooth decay and gum diesease
- Minimal fear changed behaviour most
-> Fear appeal = effective but if too strong then the effect drops.
Methods of Health Promotion - Evaluation
EFFECTIVE - e.g. Cowpe, Dannenburg + J and F prove.
HIGH EV - e.g. Cowpe - real life ad campaign/ Dannenburg - real law enforced.
LOW EV - e.g. J+F = lecture
FALSIFIABILITY - e.g. Dannenburg questions media campaigns
ETHICS - Pop - e.g. J+F = gruesome images
SAMPLE - e.g. J+F use year 10 USA students
INVALID - e.g. J+F and Dannenburg use self reports so may lie
Adherence to Medical Regimes - Reasons for Non-Adh
Reasons for Non-Adherence?
-> Rational reasons = uncertain if works/ side effects/ believe diagnosis is wrong therefore leads to them deciding not to adhere.
- Looked at reasons why not take meds that would extend life
- 15% of hypertensive patients stopped taking meds due to side effects
- 8% stopped taking due to sexual problems
-> If the costs outweigh the benefits it reduces the chance of adherence.
Adherence to Medical Regimes - Measures of Non-Adh
Measures of Non-Adherence
-> Different ways of measuring are; ask if taking(SR)/ Monitor medicine bottoles(Beh)/Test chemicals in body(physiological)
- Beliefs and attitudes of parents correlated w/ kids inhalers administered
- If costs outweight benefits then unlikely to administer meds.
- Blood tests to validate claim of medication
-> Using physical tests to check if symptoms are improving is an effective way to measure non-adherence
Adherence to Medical Regimes - Improving non-adher
-> Funhaler - reduce boredom
Watt et al
- 1 week = inhaler 2nd week = funhaler
- after each week parental questionnaire
- 38% more medicated with funhaler than inhaler
-> child friendly features act as reward and encourages adherence
Adherence to Medical Regimes - Evaluation
USEFUL - e.g. P.apps - Watt et al/ Knowledge - Becker
VALID - e.g. Becker - blood tests
RELIABLE - e.g. Becker - easy to replicate - standardised
INVALID - e.g. Watt et al - self report - lie
NOT RELIABLE - e.g. Watt et al - different results with different sample
LIMITED SAMPLE - e.g. Watt et al - 32 children
NOT USEFUL - e.g. Watt et al - limited sample limits p.apps