LOA: The later threats of the 1180's were the greatest threat to Henry - coalition between Young Henry and Richard, the threats of the early rebellions were the minority, the great rebellion was serious but it was a limited threat due t the in experience of it's leaders.
Early Revolts (Barons)
LOA: Persistent but manageable threat to Henry as they were the minority.
1150's: A small number of Barons posed a danger to Henry as they had personal grievences over lands/cenrilisation of government- taking castles back etc.
- William Le gros: tried to resist submitting casltes-forced to submit as Henr marched against him
- Hugh Earl of chester: denied inheritence of chester
- Hugh Mortimer: refused to submit castles- Henry used force each castltle surredered inc Hugh
Henry was able to isolate them as there were so few-majority submitted to Henry as they were aware of the benefits of order a King would bring to England.
Early rebellions worked in Henry's favour as he could demonstarte fear.
Early Welsh revolts
Three great Welsh princes:
- OWAIN- North (GWYNNDD)
Henry wanted to 'put back the clock' regarding authority to the time of his grandfather henry I
Henry's actions: exploited divisions of the welsh princes- 1157 invaded and allied with Madog of Powys against Owain - Henry did not continue to press claims due to problems on the continent.
1163: Henry returns and forces Gruffydd to submit. The Welsh prince was humiliated and rose in rebellion.- Henry responsed with a campaign in 1164 - IT WAS A DISASTER!
- Henry ambushed and naval contingent crippled yet Owain still feared an open encounter with Royal Army and submitted
CARPENTER: 'GREATEST DEFEAT IN HENRY'S CAREER'
Henry did not fully overcome the Welsh but the threat was contained because of the divisions of the Welsh princes- NOT CREATEST THREAT
Far more of a serious threat in comparision to early rebellions- geographically greater and wider coalitions.
- Poole: Louis was a 'director' as he advised young Henry to demnd more power from his father-under the pretext of visiting his daughter margret.
- Louis provided resorces from the french crown.
- Poole the Job was done 'clumsily' Jones- louis was a 'bad general'
- Failed to develop any objective
- Evident in failing of 2nd crusade and defence against Henry Brittany 1158
ALTHOUGH HE INCREASED PRACTICAL POWER HIS POOR LEADERSHIP DAMPENED THE THREAT
INVOLVEMENT OF BARONS (GR)
Rebelling over resentment of Henry's cantrilisation of Government
- Seized royal lands and castles
- re-established the exchquer
- sheriffs became local agent
- BARONS OF 1173 WERE STRATEGICALLY DANGEROUS-lands in the midland s that could have cut ff the North- THEY WERE BY FAR THE MINORITY (PRIVATE RESENTMENT)
The private motivation limited the danger of the barons but also the rebellion itself as no large scale baronial revolt allowed Henry to deal with the rebellion in stages, he overcame the rebellion as he used the forces he had well.
WILLIAM OF SCOTLAND
William of scots involvment added to the severity- led to the wasting of cumbria and rebel capture at Huntington and Nottingham.
However, the DANGER OF SCOTLAND WAS LIMITED:
- 1174- Battle of Alwick: William recklessly stormed Alnwick shouting 'Now we shall see which of us are good knights!' - William captured by henrys troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill,was transfereed to Falaise in Normady
- Wile in Normandy Henry stormed Scotland and the treaty of Falaise 1174- William acknowledged Henry as his feudal superior and taxed the scots.
- William swears fealty to Henry II 1175 york castle.
SCOTLAND POSED A THREAT TO THE NORTHERN BORDER, THE THREAT WAS LIMITED BY WILLIAMS POOR LEADERSHIP.
- THREAT AS HE WAS A HIGHLY LEGITIMATE CLAIMANT-already crowned king in 1170
- this added great legitimacy to the rebellion
- Explain why he was angry with his father-lack of land,jelous of John
However... Jones highlights he lack 'CHARISMATIC KINGSHIP OF HIS FATHER'
Significant theocratic threat but his lack of practical ability weakened him, even though he had practical support from france and scotland Young Henry could not compete with his fathers great leadership- King Henry overcame the rebellion therefore NOT greatest threat.
LATER THREATS 1180'S
ACCESION OF PHILLIP: Louis died and Phillip was much more aggresive and determined to see the rebalance of power in the capetians favour- Used Henry's sons against their own father.
- Phillip arched on Berry becuase a dispute of overlordship of Toulouse and Brittany. He was also angered that Henry did not follow through with the promised marriage with Richard and Alic in return for the Vexin- Phillip demanded them both back.
- Richards relations were braking down at the same time as his father favoured John and wanted Richard to hand over Aquitane to him
RICHARD AND PHILLIP ALLIED-richard paid homage in return for Henry's continetal lands, they allied in attempt to overun the english King by taking Normandy,Maine and Touraine by 1188.
BY 1188 HENRY WAS FORCED TO SUBMIT TO PHILLIP.
1189- RICHARD NAMED AS SUCCESSOR AND PHILLIP TO KEEP BERRY.
'HENRY'S REIGN WAS BROUGHT TO A HUMULIATING CLOSE' (BARROW)
EARLY REVOLTS MINORITY
THOSE INVOLVED WITH THE GREAT REBELLION DAMPENED ITS SERIOUSNESS DUE TO WEAK LEADERSHIP
COLLABARATION BETWEEN RICHARD AND PHILLIP IN THE LATER THREATS 1180'S CAUSED THE DOWNFALL OF THE KING --> MOST SERIOUS/SUCCESSFULL THREAT.