CAUSE OF MAGNA CARTA 1215

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INTRODUCTION

MAGNA CARTER WAS ISSUED IN JUNE 1214 AS A RESULT OF JOHNS TREATMENT OF HIS BARONS

  • Barons exerted their authority over the King-first time in history.
  • John forced to sign-He unpopularity was beyond a scale to amend. 

Why was this a problem?

  • Symbiotic relationship like the chruch. 
  • Barons need king for security of land,King needs Barons for finacial,admin & military systems.

Argument: 

In the short term Barons sparked Magna Carta

In the long term-Johns predicessors were partly responsible for developing tensions. 

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HENRY

Henry inherited a country of disorder,his centrilisation of Government contributed to underlying tensions between the crown and the Barons.

  • Durning civil war Barons were used to ruling semi-autonomously-Henry's aim was to mitigate this as his wanted to restore royal authority back to the time of his grandfather Henry I 
  • Grew from simple 'resoration of power' to compltley undermining Baronial independance. 

Administration (SHERIFFS) 

Through Henry's authority over the sheriffs, he gained more control over the Barons. 

  • 1154: replaced 2/3 of sheriffs from Stephens reign.
  • 1162: replaced 1/2 of sheriffs- those that were known for government service
  • 1170: inquest of sheriffs- enquiry of financial dealings since 1166. HUDSCROFT- 'Unpresidented intrusion into the affairs of England's great men' 

Even though Henry contributed in the dissatifaction of Barons he ruled with diplomacy and militray strength which prevented them from uprising. 

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RICHARD

Position of baronial power was still a key resentmentduring Richards reign, but he added to the tensions by

  • imposing financial pressures in order to achieve his military aims. 
  • Those left in charge in Richards absence angered the Barons. 

Foreign-born officials: Barons influence was weakened furthur when Richard put in place men from other terriotries in positions as Royal officials. 

  • William Longchamp placed as joint justiciar- Not understand english, very hated man.
  • Evidently Longchamp was removed by Richard.  
  • Appointment of foreign born officials caused the greatest anger durning Johns reign.

Kinghts became administators: Barons undermined furthur as knights were just as important militarlity as administrative duties.Local governent carried out wothout reference to the Barons.

Financial: Greater financial demand weakened Barons wealth.

  • Scutage more regularly
  • Caracage (land tax of 2 shillings 1194)
  • Expanded to Great Caragae in 1198 -raised £1000 
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PHILLIP AUGUSTUS

The financial burdens of Richard were hightened with the threat of military conquest from Phillip Augustus.

POLITICALLY: Phillip provoked invasions as he used the Angevin family aganst itself to create opportunities for invasion- heightened financial pressures. 

  • Used Young Henry,Geoffrey and Richard against their father
  • John against Richard
  • John against Arthur ( John's nephew)

John Vs Arthur

  • Phillip switched his support from John to Arthur after the Luingnan affair.
  • John summoned to Paris to discuss chrages from the Luisingnans
  • John refused to meet Phillip any furthur than the border to save himself humilation.
  • Phillip declared John had failed to meet fuedal obligation-legitimised him invading Normady-->chatau de Gailliard--> Rouen-->Chinon--> Loches. 

Increased finacial pressures as it was up to the Barons to aid enough for resorces to fight Phillip Forces- he was 70% richer. 

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JOHN ( ADMIN&FINANCE)

Barons power was undermined as John was power hungry, He lacked diplomatic control which led him to make unreasonable decsions for the country. The Barons respected they needed to respect a form of organisation, but King John radically reduced their significance in English Government. 

Foreign-born officials: Hubert Walter dies & John replaces most of his advisors 

  • Peter de Roches
  • Peter de Maulay     
  • NOT A MASS IMPOSITION OF FOREIGN OFFICIALS BUT ENOUGH TO REMIND BARONS THE KING HAD LOYALTIES ABOVE THOSE OWED TO THEM. 

Feudal incidents: John had a right to feudal dues but - John severly increased payments to aid his finacial needs.

  • The price of a relife such as marriages of Widows would be £100, John increased this by 7 times and created a penalty fine for those not paid. -traditional the full price would not be taken by they King, the Lord would just 'owe' the King and be loyal.

JOHN WAS BREACHING CHIVALRIC HONOUR.

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JOHN- JUSTICE

John took the justice structure created by Henry II but pushed it's opportunity for personal profit,to the FULL!

  • Sold Writs
  • Raising the level of fines
  • Seized property from those convicted
  • John charged for a favourable outcome of a legal suit- £1000 +15 palfreys (horses) this was paid by Gerard de furneval

John increased the severity of the justice system from the time of Hnery,caused furhtur resentment among the Barons- evidence: 'justice of sale' mentioned in Magna Carta. John is personally blamed as he made all the changes himself.

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USE OF THE MONEY (MILITARILY)

  • John did not invest the money wisely, INFACT he weakened the countries defences which led to the fatal defeat at THE BATTLE OF BOVINES but also his DEFEAT AS A KING.
  • Loss of Normady 1204
  • John failed to achieve his plan of re-conquest in 1205: John set sail but the Barons refues to go woth him becuase of this it was a military failure- showed the Barons the King was militrailty incapable and they were paying a harsh price becuase of it. 

Despite as JONES COMMENTS 'Expedition to Ireland had been a success' in 1212 and the naval success at Damme in 1213. John never fullfilled the military expectation of a King.

DEFEAT AT BATTLE OF BOVINES 1214 WAS THE TRIGGER FOR MAGNA CARTA-JOHNS WEAKNESS AS KING WAS EVIDENT AND THE BARONS UNREASONABLE FINANCIAL CONTRIBITIONS HAD GONE TO WASTE. 

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CONCLUSION

  • Magna carta itself is evidence of the Barons grieveneces.
  • Grievences were initiated in the long term
  • However, MANY CLAUSES SPECIFICALLY RELATE TO FEUDAL SOVEREIGNTY-Baronial widows forced to remarry.Introduced under John. 
  • Baronial injustice had reached a peak.

LOSS AT THE BATTLE OF BOUVINGES CAUSED THE ISSUING OF MAGNA CARTA-THE BARONS FLED.

  • proved Johns weakness as King and also the money theyu gave was not put into practice
  • Although previous Kings were the fuel to MAGNA CARTA they were able to manage the baronial discontent. 
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