MAGNA CARTER WAS ISSUED IN JUNE 1214 AS A RESULT OF JOHNS TREATMENT OF HIS BARONS
- Barons exerted their authority over the King-first time in history.
- John forced to sign-He unpopularity was beyond a scale to amend.
Why was this a problem?
- Symbiotic relationship like the chruch.
- Barons need king for security of land,King needs Barons for finacial,admin & military systems.
In the short term Barons sparked Magna Carta
In the long term-Johns predicessors were partly responsible for developing tensions.
Henry inherited a country of disorder,his centrilisation of Government contributed to underlying tensions between the crown and the Barons.
- Durning civil war Barons were used to ruling semi-autonomously-Henry's aim was to mitigate this as his wanted to restore royal authority back to the time of his grandfather Henry I
- Grew from simple 'resoration of power' to compltley undermining Baronial independance.
Through Henry's authority over the sheriffs, he gained more control over the Barons.
- 1154: replaced 2/3 of sheriffs from Stephens reign.
- 1162: replaced 1/2 of sheriffs- those that were known for government service
- 1170: inquest of sheriffs- enquiry of financial dealings since 1166. HUDSCROFT- 'Unpresidented intrusion into the affairs of England's great men'
Even though Henry contributed in the dissatifaction of Barons he ruled with diplomacy and militray strength which prevented them from uprising.
Position of baronial power was still a key resentmentduring Richards reign, but he added to the tensions by
- imposing financial pressures in order to achieve his military aims.
- Those left in charge in Richards absence angered the Barons.
Foreign-born officials: Barons influence was weakened furthur when Richard put in place men from other terriotries in positions as Royal officials.
- William Longchamp placed as joint justiciar- Not understand english, very hated man.
- Evidently Longchamp was removed by Richard.
- Appointment of foreign born officials caused the greatest anger durning Johns reign.
Kinghts became administators: Barons undermined furthur as knights were just as important militarlity as administrative duties.Local governent carried out wothout reference to the Barons.
Financial: Greater financial demand weakened Barons wealth.
- Scutage more regularly
- Caracage (land tax of 2 shillings 1194)
- Expanded to Great Caragae in 1198 -raised £1000
The financial burdens of Richard were hightened with the threat of military conquest from Phillip Augustus.
POLITICALLY: Phillip provoked invasions as he used the Angevin family aganst itself to create opportunities for invasion- heightened financial pressures.
- Used Young Henry,Geoffrey and Richard against their father
- John against Richard
- John against Arthur ( John's nephew)
John Vs Arthur
- Phillip switched his support from John to Arthur after the Luingnan affair.
- John summoned to Paris to discuss chrages from the Luisingnans
- John refused to meet Phillip any furthur than the border to save himself humilation.
- Phillip declared John had failed to meet fuedal obligation-legitimised him invading Normady-->chatau de Gailliard--> Rouen-->Chinon--> Loches.
Increased finacial pressures as it was up to the Barons to aid enough for resorces to fight Phillip Forces- he was 70% richer.
JOHN ( ADMIN&FINANCE)
Barons power was undermined as John was power hungry, He lacked diplomatic control which led him to make unreasonable decsions for the country. The Barons respected they needed to respect a form of organisation, but King John radically reduced their significance in English Government.
Foreign-born officials: Hubert Walter dies & John replaces most of his advisors
- Peter de Roches
- Peter de Maulay
- NOT A MASS IMPOSITION OF FOREIGN OFFICIALS BUT ENOUGH TO REMIND BARONS THE KING HAD LOYALTIES ABOVE THOSE OWED TO THEM.
Feudal incidents: John had a right to feudal dues but - John severly increased payments to aid his finacial needs.
- The price of a relife such as marriages of Widows would be £100, John increased this by 7 times and created a penalty fine for those not paid. -traditional the full price would not be taken by they King, the Lord would just 'owe' the King and be loyal.
JOHN WAS BREACHING CHIVALRIC HONOUR.
John took the justice structure created by Henry II but pushed it's opportunity for personal profit,to the FULL!
- Sold Writs
- Raising the level of fines
- Seized property from those convicted
- John charged for a favourable outcome of a legal suit- £1000 +15 palfreys (horses) this was paid by Gerard de furneval
John increased the severity of the justice system from the time of Hnery,caused furhtur resentment among the Barons- evidence: 'justice of sale' mentioned in Magna Carta. John is personally blamed as he made all the changes himself.
USE OF THE MONEY (MILITARILY)
- John did not invest the money wisely, INFACT he weakened the countries defences which led to the fatal defeat at THE BATTLE OF BOVINES but also his DEFEAT AS A KING.
- Loss of Normady 1204
- John failed to achieve his plan of re-conquest in 1205: John set sail but the Barons refues to go woth him becuase of this it was a military failure- showed the Barons the King was militrailty incapable and they were paying a harsh price becuase of it.
Despite as JONES COMMENTS 'Expedition to Ireland had been a success' in 1212 and the naval success at Damme in 1213. John never fullfilled the military expectation of a King.
DEFEAT AT BATTLE OF BOVINES 1214 WAS THE TRIGGER FOR MAGNA CARTA-JOHNS WEAKNESS AS KING WAS EVIDENT AND THE BARONS UNREASONABLE FINANCIAL CONTRIBITIONS HAD GONE TO WASTE.
- Magna carta itself is evidence of the Barons grieveneces.
- Grievences were initiated in the long term
- However, MANY CLAUSES SPECIFICALLY RELATE TO FEUDAL SOVEREIGNTY-Baronial widows forced to remarry.Introduced under John.
- Baronial injustice had reached a peak.
LOSS AT THE BATTLE OF BOUVINGES CAUSED THE ISSUING OF MAGNA CARTA-THE BARONS FLED.
- proved Johns weakness as King and also the money theyu gave was not put into practice
- Although previous Kings were the fuel to MAGNA CARTA they were able to manage the baronial discontent.