Natural increase - Birth rate higher than death rate
Natural Decrease - Death rate higher than birth rate
The structure of the UK population changes greatly in the twentieth century. A number of trends can be identified such as
- Family size, life expectancy, migration patterns, employment patterns.
Social and economic factors that impact UK populat
- The birth rate has declined in the UK except after the 2nd world war when men were reunited with their families there was a baby boom.
- In 1940 11% of women had no children and by 2000 this figure doubled.
- Many women are want to have a career instead of raising a family
- They put off having children until they have established careers and then releasing their fertility levels are low.
- The average age was 26 in 1971 but now in 2012 its 30
- The availability of contraception.
- Life expectancy increase
- Rise in school leaving age
- More of the population is either at or approaching retirement age.
- The challenges with this is the pension burden and increase in service demand.
- The baby boom generation 1945-65 will be retired by 2030.
- A much smaller generation will be economically active and will have to support the elderly.
- Dependency ratio = ((Pop under 16 + Pop over 65) / Pop 15-64 ) x 100
- Some businesses have benefited from the grey pound e.g leisure and DIY
Demographic Transition Model
Reasons - Demographic Transition Model
Stage 1 - Poor health care, high infant mortality, unhealthy lifestyle
Stage 2 - Vaccinations, clean water, medical knowledge impoving, Jenner introduced small pox vaccine.
Stage 3 - public health care act, treatment for TB, improved housing, sanitation and diet.
Stage 4 - NHS, Higher life expectancy, more medical research, improved safety
Internal and external factors impacting on familie
- Internal - postwar government slum clearance programme.
- External - factory closures so young migrate looking for work.
Employment and status changes
- Internal - Increased A level take up encouraged.
- External - The UK government ceased subsidies for industries that had become globally noncompetitive. The government has sought to enhance the UK's global comparative advantages in areas such as finance and media.
Changes in ethnicity
- Internal - After WW2 more labour was needed to help with economic recovery. This led to the recruitment of workers from all over British commonwealth.
- External - Under EU legislation citizens can live and work in the UK.
Tracing your Roots
During the national census all households every 10 years complete a questionnaire. This is available to the public after 200 years.
- Your oldest living relative may be able to give you background information.
- They may have birth/death certificates.
- There are international genealogy sites e.g family search which includes an international genealogy index to help with searching for over sea relatives.
- Ancestry.co.uk has Census, birth/death and marriage certificates.
- 1901 Census - Part of the national archives
- National statistics - Official government website www.statistic.gov.uk
- But - Old census records may be inaccurate and names may be misspelt and ages misrecorded.
- It can be unreliable because; it can be illegible, incomplete, inaccurate, sometimes lose and use their middle name.
1) Displaced people - People forced to move e.g war, famine, disaster and political persecution.
= Refugees - Asylum seekers (want to stay in another country)
Granted asylum = stay there Failed asylum = return home
2) Voluntary Migrants - Economic
= Permanent - move for work
= Temporary - move for work for weeks or years
3) Illegal migrants - People who avoid border controls and enter illegally.
e.g failed asylum seeker who doesn't return or a temp worker who stays.
Current Trends - Illegal Migration
Illegal migration is on the rise. Some estimates suggest 4-8 million illegal African migrants may be in the EU. Huge areas of Africa have been wracked by conflict, civil unrest, famine and poverty so the push factors are strong.
- Migrants pay traffickers $1000-4000 each for transport.
- The Sahara desert land route is dangerous and there are many heat related deaths and killings by bandits.
- Fishing boats used on the sea routes can be lethal.
- Being caught often leads ti deportation.
- A common route from Senegal to the Canaries, can take 8-10 days in potentially overcrowded boats.
Migrant routes from Africa to Europe
Case study - Malta
Tiny Malta with a population of 400,000 joined the EU in 2004 increasing finds itself on the front line of the battle to prevent illegal migration into Europe.
- In 2006 1,700 migrants arrived in Malta by boat. Most had missed mainland Italy or Sicily and landed in Malta by mistake.
- The EU patrol boats that find the illegal migrants cannot turn them back as the international law obliges them to help.
- Malta has 3 detention centers and the law states that all illegal migrants should be detained for up to 18 months.
- The fear id too many migrants becoming trapped on this tiny island.
- The key to reducing this may be an agreement with Libya to police its waters more carefully.
Economic Issues - Migration
- They are young , single and skilled so can boost economic growth.
- Migrating families with dependents or asylum seekers could be a cost.
- Migrants pay 10% of taxes and only take 9% of government spending.
- Only 5000 claimed benefits but 70,000 claimed child benefits
- Migration has added £12-18 billion in text revenues since 1998.
Social, cultural and environmental issues
- In 2007 in the UK 1 in 4 children were born to a foreign parent.
- The UK birth rate has increased since 2002 due to migration
- Causes family break up and crowded countries which suffer congestion, urban air pollution and urban sprawl.
- Language barriers and costs of providing education.
- It creates multicultural societies and the benefit of easy access to music, food, tradition and ideas of other cultures.
- Meet international obligations in accepting asylum seekers
- Limit illegal migration
- Match immigration to the needs of the economy, and minimize emigration of key workers and the resulting brain drain.
- Integrate immigration into the host society.
Case study: UK policy on Immigration
- They try to balance the costs of migration with the benefits
- Permanent residence is only granted when migrants have been residents in the UK for some years.
- In 2008 they introduced a five tier point system for non EU immigrants which the immigrants have to be on.
Tier 1: Highly skilled individuals e.g doctor
Tier 2: Skilled workers with a job offer to fill gaps in the UK labour force
Tier 3: Limited numbers of low-skilled workers needed to fill the specific temporary labour shortages e.g seasonal jobs and factory workers.
Tier 4: Studentts
Tier 5: Youth mobility and temporary workers allowed to work in the UK for a limited period of time e.g gap year, events (e.g Olympics), Band/singer
Evaluation of ways to manage migration
- Border controls - Allows governments to control people but is extremely costly and may put off visitors.
- Work permits - Allows temporary workers to be controlled but can be abused.
- Refugees and asylum seekers - Prestige by accepting vulnerable groups but public see them as a cost with few benefits.
- Integration - Citizenship tests but doesn't prevent social tension and racism.
- Cap on immigration - Puts a limit on non EU migration to the UK but doesn't limit EU migration and limts economic migrants.
Push factors EU to UK
- Unemployment e.g Poland 2005 = 18.2%
- Following the collapse of the Soviet Union they gained independence the newly privatized industries couldn't compete on the world market.
- GDP/Capita in Poland 2006 = $12,700 Low investment in schools and hospitals.
- Many polish people have returned home due to;
- Improved working conditions - No recession
- Poor economic conditions in the UK - recession, cuts
- Migration rules relaxed in Germany - May 2011 labour market opened up
Pull Factors EU to UK
- A8 given right to free movement to UK, Ireland and Sweden but not other countries.
- Developed UK economy is a magnet for migrants seeking work
- UK has a reputation for tolerance towards migrants
- UK GDP in 2006 $30,000 and Poland $12,700
- Growing low unemployment economy in need of low wage labour
- Skills shortage and demand for semi and unskilled workers
- Higher wages in UK
- Migrants with vocational training or secondary education at around 30.
- Young migrants just finished education age 18-34
- Young and unmarried migrants with tertiary (higher) education searching to brush up on language skills and attain work experience abroad.
- Highly educated specialists with working experience e.g dentist
Where did they move from?
Where are they migrating too?
- They migrate to many agricultural areas
- They are attracted to fruit picking areas and places with low skilled and seasonal jobs.
- 1) London 2) Boston 3) Westminster 4) Northampton 5) South Holland 6) Peterborough 7) Fenland 8) East Cambridgeshire 9) Herefordshire 10) Dungannon ( fish processing factory in Scotland).
Source costs & benefits
- Temporary migrants send about 25% of their earnings home
- Loss of workforce e.g 7% in Poland
- Unemployment in Poland fallen from 18% in 2004 to 10% in 2007
- Ageing population
- Declining population
- Skills taken back e.g English skills, work based skills
- Brain Drain and skills shortages e.g Plumbers and doctors have left Poland
Host costs & benefits
- Pressure on schools, NHS, and council services e.g teacher support
- Economic turnaround in rural areas
- Pressure on space and housing - rising house prices
- Business opportunities e.g supermarkets providing polish food
- Counteracts the ageing population if migrants have children.
- Fills the skills gap e.g farming and fish processing in Scottish highlands
- Social and cultural tensions
- Crime due to cultural unfamiliarity e.g road traffic offences
- Kept inflation low
UK to Spain - Who is migrating?
- A significant number of retirees
- Those in their thirties and forties who have moved to set up businesses
- People who have moved partly as property speculators and they may still have business links with the UK
- Most of them are sun seekers and around 60% are economically active.
Pull factors - reasons for migration
- The sun is the biggest draw and perceived relaxed lifestyle
- Property prices are lower
- Utility bills are 50/60 % lower than the UK
- Rise of low cost airlines
- Long term road building programme in spain
- The internet makes business and family communication easier
- New business opportunities
The push factors
- A perception of rising crime
- High taxation and spiraling house prices
- Lack of space, congestion and low environmental quality
- Spain joined EU in 1986 which means free movement of people
- May be able to sell a valuable house in the UK and buy a much cheaper one in Spain and still have a substantial sum left over.
Impacts of migration to spain on host
- Emigrant Ghettos - e.g English bars, schools, sports clubs
- Resentment as they enter local politics
- Increased spending of affluent retirees
- Job creation in construction, health, retail and legal.
- House prices exceed buying powers of local residents.
- Large scale villa development ruined landscape
- Pollution and flood risk.
- Unproductive scrubland becomes valuable land
Impacts of migration on the source
- Loss of childcare
- Grey pound spent over seas
- Fewer older people so health care prices reduced
- Family break up as grandparents move
Case study - San Fulgencio
- One of the largest urbanisacions in Spain
- Largest proportion of non-Spanish residents about 50% of the foreigners are British.
- Each year the local school gets 2 new huts to accommodate the 40-50 new pupils virtually all foreign.
- Urbanisacion La Maria - Villas cost $200,000+ to buy and $600 to rent per week.
- They don't speak the language and insist on English food
- Some brits want to turn Spain into little England