Geography: The Restless Earth

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The Andes

Background Information:It is the longest range of fold mountains in the word at 7,000KM. The Andes has a width of about 300KM and a height of 4,000m.

Farming:Although the Andes has high altitudes, the mountain slopes are used for farming. In Bolivia many grow subsisstance food (providing them and their famillies). A main food source is potatos. Terraces are used to make getting up the mountains easier. Llamas carry materials for irrigation (artificial watering of the land) in inacessable areas. The ancient settlement of Machu Picchu used llamas to transport materials as these animals can carry 25% of their body weight. Males are used for transport and females for milk and wool.

Mining:The Andes are home to a range of different materials, top ten for tin in Peru and Bolivia, nikel in Columbia, silver (Peru and Chile) and gold (peru). The Yanacocha gold mine is the largest goldmine in the world. Cajamarca has grown form 30,000 inhabitants to 240,000 in 2005. Problems are lack of services and increased crime rate

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The Andes Continued


An area of foldmountains can be used for hydroelectric power. The Andes has narrow valleys and steep slopes have a negative effect of farming but a positive effect for HEP. During spring the melting of the snow, increases the supply of water which is in an advantage however the variation throught the year is a disadvantage. The Yuncan Project dams the Paucartambo and Huachon rivers in north east peru.


There are many natural attractions in the Andes such as mountain peaks, volcanos, glaciers and lakes. Some attrations show the history for example the remains of Machu Picchu. The Inca Trail.

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Yellow Stone Super volcano

Location?Located in Montana, USA and is know for being in Yellow Stone National Park.

Last Eruption?There are three recent eruptions, the most recent being 630,000 years ago. The supervolcano is due to erupt any time soon.Physical Features of a supervolcano?Caldera: Is formed due to the collaypsing land, which is then followed by a volcanic eruptionMagma Chamber: A large underground pod of liquid rock found beneath the surface of the Earth

Potential consequences of supervolcanic eruption?40% of mankind expected to die

12.5cm of lava covering USA50km eruption in the air1000cm3 of ashEurope has 5 days till the ash arrivesNo petrol due to eruption major ripple effect!Up to 10 years of the sun being blocked

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Mt St. Helens

Location?One of the five volcanos in the Cascade Range in Washington State USA. Had been dormant for many years.

When did the eruption occur?8:32am on18th of May 1980. Measure 5.1 on the richter scale. Trigger Statements?Harry Truman - (aged 83, died in hom with his 16 cats)Toutle River - Gas flow raised temperature by 2 degrees, because ash the water was high in sulpher, which turned the river acidic killing all aquatic lifeSpirit Lake - Top layer of river was filled with mud and flattened trees, 12 milllion salmon died which was a massive industry at Mount St Helens. ShortTerm Responses?                                                                                                                                2 million masks were sent in as the air was filled with copious amounts of ash.                  Helicopters were mobilisted to help find any surviviors or injured, Ash delayed the finding of peopleLong Term responses?57 people died, trees needed to be replaned as they had all been killed the timber businnes was massive too, Animals like elks have returned, Salmon farming has begun again. Spirit Lake has returned

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Mount Etna

Location: Located on the Island of Sicily, Italy. The lava from previous eruptions provide fertile soil for growning citrus fruit and vines, Mt Etna itself is a tourist attraction and has ski slopes

Nature of Event: Mt Etna is located on a destructive plate margin between the African and Eurasian plate,the northern edge of the African plate is being subducted.The eruption in 1991 started on 14th December and lasted for 473 days which was the most volumous eruption from Etna in over 300 years (250 million m³)                                                                                                                                                   Effects:

There were NO deaths as a result of the eruption, The lava destroyed the springs which provided the water supply to the town of Zafferana with a population of 8,000 people. Several people who lost homes and farm land in the Val del Bove blamed the government for not acting soon enough, the total cost of mangement and responses ran in to millions of lira. Vineyards and chestnut orchids were destroyed.

Short/LongTerm Responses:In 1992 italian authorites built an earth barrier 400m long an 20m high to stop the lave reaching the people of Zafferana, US troops involved in operation volcano buster where they blasted bombs to stop the lava, these meausres aswell as a channel being dug stopped 850m of lava.INGV looked for ways to monitor future eruptions.

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Kobe earthquake 1995

When and Where? 5:46am on 17th jan 1995 in Kobe Japan. 7.2 on the richter scale, tremours lasted 20 seconds and caused serious damaged. Philllipeans plate subducted beneath Eurasion plate along the Nojima Fault line.

Effects?6434 died, 40,000 seriously injured, 300,000 homeless, 2 million homes without electricity, 1 million without water for 10 days. Damaged roads make it diffuicult for fire services to put out fires. Economy suffered as it cosed 220 billion to repair.

Responses?7-11 helped to provide essentials, Motorola maintained telephone connections free of charge, Hashin expressway was 80% functional in a month. Homes and businness had to be rebuilt, family memebers were lost.

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Haiti 2010

When and Where? 4:53am on 12th of jan 2010. Earthquakie meausred 7.2 on richter scale. Occured at a destructive plate margin between Carribbean and North America Fault line.

Effects?230,00 died, 300,000 seriously injured, 100,000 homes destroyed, 1.3 million hatians left homeless, 1,100 squalid camps, many died in the after path due to cholera and typhoid.

Responses?Damaged roads delayed medical services, airport couldnt handle the amount of planes flying in to help, 10,000 troops helped search for survivors, 100 million in aid from US. Haiti goverment had to move 235,000 people from Port-au-Prince (Capital). Haiti became independant on overseas countries and a higher standard of homes had to be built. World bank gave US100 million to support reconstruction.

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Indian Ocean Tsumani 2004

When and Where? 26th of December 2004, earthquake meausred 9.1 on the richter scale. Tsumami caused because Indoaustralian plate subducting beneath the eurasion plate.

Effects?220,000 died, 650 seriously injured, 2 million were homeless, public buildings like schools hospitals were ruined, 13 countries were affected. Diseases such as chlolera and dysentery spread due to lack of clean water. Lack of sanitaion killed 150,000.

Responses?Rescue services were called in straight away, UK goverment promised 75 million and public donations raised 100 million. Bodies had to be buried in mass graves to prevent spread od disease, 373m has been donated by UK after a year,there were plans to build 20,000 for 100,000 homless people. The indian ocean warning had been set up in 2006 to ensure people know how to repond.

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Tourism - Dubai

Burj Al Arab
The Burj Al Arab (Tower of the Arabs) is the world's only 7 star hotel and designed to resemble a billowing sail, the Burj Al Arab soars to a height of 321 metres, dominating the Dubai skyline making it the fourth tallest hotel in the world.

Alantis Hotel
The resort offers relaxation and thrills for couples and families alike, including: Unique marine habitats- The Lost Chambers, An exhilarating water park- Aquaventure, Pristine white beaches, World-class cuisine in 18 restaurants, An indulgent spa (ShuiQi ) to awaken your senses, Cosmopolitan boutiques to shop until your heart is content

Burj Khalifa
The Burj Khalifa is the world's tallest tower and is an amazing feat of engineering- the story of which you can see if you take a trip to "At The Top"- the highest viewing platform in the world. The high point of any Burj Khalifa experience is the view from At The Top. Located on level 124 of the world's tallest tower, this observatory is destined to be the highlight of any visit to the Middle East.

Dubai Water Fountains:Set on the 30-acre Burj Khalifa Lake, the fountain shoots water jets as high as 500 ft, equivalent to that of a 50-storey building. The fountain is 900 ft long and has five circles of varying sizes and two central arcs. It is designed by California-based WET, the creators of the Fountains of Bellagio in Las Vegas

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Origins in Victorian times and by the middle of the nineteenth century the railway had linked Blackpool to Manchester and the other densely populated textile towns of Lancashire. Factory workers poured into Blackpool on Bank Holidays. After the introduction of paid annual holidays, they spent a week there, every year. Many northern families never considered going anywhere else. Blackpool had the natural advantage of a sandy beach, which stretched for miles; by 1900, the tourist infrastructure of promenade, piers, big hotels and the Tower were all in place.

Blackpool's problems: families frightened off by binge-drinking culture of 'stag nights' and 'hen parties', unemployment out of season, overcrowding and traffic jams,unreliable summer weather ,cheap package holidays to the Mediterranean taking regular visitors away

Strategies for solving Blackpool's problems: smarten up areas run-down and which look unpleasant landscaping more car parks, beaches have been cleaned up and beach facilities improved, in 2006 three of Blackpool's beaches were given blue flags for clean sea-water, the 'Blackpool Illuminations' which are vital for extending the visitor season into the autumn, are being transformed by £10 million investment after years of 'always being the same' ,Other off-season events, such as conferences and festivals are being promoted, New attractions at the pleasure beach theme park, more covered areas for tourists to protect them from the bad weather,possiblity of building a super-casino

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Lake District

Attractions:Spectacular scenery,Clean air, Peace and quiet, Not too crowded, Good walking, Wildlife and plant life, Attractive villages, Shopping,Water sports,Climbing or scrambling, Visiting restaurants or cafes

Problems of Tourism: Traffic 89% of visitors come by car causing hassle for locals, Honey pot sites; Cat Bells is easy to climb therefore suffers foot erosion, Beatrix Potters cottage attracts many famillies honey pot sites needs to improve their access, Pressure on Properties; 20% of property is either holidays homes or let accomadation, due to increased prices the locals cannot afford the prices and are forced to leave, Environment issues; Water sports are not allow on lakes because fuel spills are common causing pollution.

Stratergies to manage tourism: Traffic: HGV are kept of scenic roads, Park and ride schemes are encouaged, dual carriages built on the edges of the Lake District to help the traffic flow. Honey Pot sites; repair footpaths, bins provided at every point, develop new small car parks. Property Prices; Local authorities could build more properties for holiday home use, but little has been done. Environmental issues; Limiting speed.

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Mass Tourism- Kenya

Where? Kenya is located in East Africa, its capital city is Nairobi and it has a population of approximately 30 million people

Why Visit?- Tropical weather all year round, Safari Holidays e.g Maasai Mara, Nakuru National Park (inc the big 5 lion, elephant, rhino, leopard and buffalo),Culture e.g Maasai warriors, Coastal holidays (coral reefs, marine life, sands e.g Mombasa

Positive Impacts of Tourism?Tourism contributes to 15% of its income, In 2003, about 219,000 work in the tourism industry, The culture and customs of the Maasai Mara are being preserved because things like.There are 23 National Parks in Kenya and tourists have to pay to get in.Money is used to maintain the National Parks to help protect the environment and wildlife..Tourism is no longer seasonal – jobs are all year round.

Disadvantages of Tourism?Only 15% of income goes to locals, some Maasai Mara were forced off land to create National parks, Some muslims are offended by tourists dress code, safari vehicles destroy vegitaion and cause soil erosion. Wild animals like leopards have changed hunting patterns to avoid crowns. Coral reefs have been damaged by boats.



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Extreme Tourism- Antartica

Why do people go there? People want to try something new and excititing, tourism places include; walk amung penguin colonies, whale watching, birdwatching, see the ice burys, silence, Lemaire channel, go swimming in the thermal spirgs of Deception Island.

Negative Impacts of Tourism?Affects wildlife like penguins who dislike being touches and abandon their eggs, increased pollution which consequently melts the ice putting polar bears at risk of extinction, Oil spills and litter can be extremly dangerous for fish and birds. It should be left untouched like how it was.

Positive impacts of tourism?Allows people to see its beauty therefore making them want to help preserve it, offers people a different style of holiday aswell as different activities.

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Ecotourism- Tataquara Lodge

Where? Is an Island in the Xingu River in thr Brazillian State of Peru, owned by indigenous people, lodge has 15 rooms.

Benefits of the Lodge?Built from local materials like wood and straw, these materials make it blend in so it doesn't spoil the scenery, solar power is used to run the lights which is good for the environemnt as no fossil fuels are used, food served is locally produced no imports. Lodge is owned by tribes so all money goes to the locals, as the lodge uses locally produced food more money goes to the local ecomomy. The lodge creates jobs for the locals, people near by sell crafts and perform, profits earned provides decent healthcare and education for thousands of people in the tribes.

How is the Lodge sustainable?No fossil fuels are used, local people work there providing them with money to pay for education and better health care, natural resoucres used preserving those for future generations.

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Changing Urban Environments- Compton Park/ Blakenh

Compton Park Housing (Suburbs):Very expensive £689,000+, 4/5 bedrooms, high end fittings, for the more affluent people, less crime, pollution and traffic

Blakenhall Gardens (Inner City):Brownfield land, e.g akron gates good year, 2/3 bedrooms, terraced or semi detched, aimed at first time buyers, smaller but basic. Higher crime rate, traffic and pollution rates.

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London Docklands (LDDC)

What is LLDC?A development corporation called London Dockland Development Corporation,and Mersey side Development Corporation (MDC) established in 1981.

Effects of renervating the Docklands?22,000 new homes built many are luxurious flats in former areas, population rose from 40,000 in 1981 to 85,000 in 2000, several new shopping centres, leisure facillities, Docklands rail travel now links with central london. New roads including M11 link. Numbe rof Jobs rose from 27,000 in 1981 to 90,000 in 2000, many new filming and financial institutions like ITV studios, high rise office blocks e,g Canery Whard. 750 hectors of derlict land reclaimed, 200,000 planted and 130 hecctors of open space created.

Problems facing people who lived in the Docklands in 1981?New houses were too expensive for the locals, most new jobs went to people who lived outside the area as the locals didnt have many technical skills, no leisure activites. 50% of the docklands were left with many empty warehouses and factories. Transport was very poorly developed.

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Bull Ring:  The Bull Ring is a major commercial area of Birmingham. The current shopping centre was the busiest in the United Kingdom in 2004 with 36.5 million visitors. It houses one of only four Selfridges department stores, the fourth largest The shopping centre consists of two main buildings (East and West Mall) which are connected by an underground passage lined with shops and is also accessible from St Martin's Square via glass doors. The doors to both wings from New Street can be removed when crowds get large and queues develop at the doors. This feature also allows cars for display to be driven into the building. They are sheltered by a glass roof known as the SkyPlane which covers 7,000 square metres (75,000 sq ft) and appears to have no visible means of support.

The Selfridges store cost £60 million and covering an area of 25,000 square metres (270,000 sq ft). The Selfridges store has won eight awards including the RIBA Award for Architecture 2004 and Destination of the Year Retail Week Awards 2004.

Brindley Place:It is often written erroneously as Brindley Place, the name of the street (in turn named after the 18th century canal engineer James Brindley) around which it is built.Birmingham City Council's aim was to create an environment of water features, walkways and new office and leisure buildings that would open out onto the adjacent canal. The scheme was assembled by the council in the 1980s.

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London Congestion Charge:

The London congestion charge is a fee for motorists travelling within the Congestion Charge Zone (CCZ), a traffic area in London. The charge aims to reduce congestion, and raise investment funds for London's transport system. The zone was introduced in Central London on 17th of Feb 2003. A payment of £8 is required each day for each vehicle that traveols through the zone beteen 7am and 6pm. A fine of between £60 and £180 is gave for non payment.

On 23 of October 2003 Tfl published a report saying the number of cars were 60,000 less than the previous year. 15-25% of people switched to car sharing, there was only a 7% drop in retail, people were using more public transport. 4,000 less visiting the zone. Tfl said that there had been no overall effect on businness.


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Multicultural Mix

Segregation: When people of the same ethnicity or religious beliefs live in the same part of town.

What are local authorites doing to help?Encourage more different faith schools, opendays at the mosque, students get taught about other faiths at school and temples invite people of other faiths to join in with their celerbration. E.G Blakenhall!

How can we help migrants?Offer english classesEAL teachers held to account for the progess of all learners

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Housing Infrastucture: Made from sticks or mud, newpaper for wall paper, about 4x4m, toilets can be used by up to 1000 people per day. £270 would pay 10 years rent in Kiberia.

Health: Medicine is far too expensive for most, most die of stress and malnourishment. Lots of litter of the floor and 20% of all children die before the ago of 5. 190,000 kiberians have HIV there are no welfare nor safety systems. Biggest killler is cholera a typhoid.

Education: People do horrfic jobs just to get their children out of the poverty cycle. Only 8% of women recive an education. Schooling costs £3 per month.

Food: Clean water is not free, famillies cant afford more than one meal a day. Keresin lamps are used.

Emplyment: A common job is prostitution which is £1.60 per go. 35p is the average wage per day, highest paid job is shouvelling feaces which is £5 per day.

Other/general: In 2011 3 million people were on less that £1.50 a day it is very densly populated for example 8 people per shack. Theres 300,000 in Wolverhampton shows contrast.

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Favella Project

Where is it? Is in south east brazil and has 600 squatter settlements. Project started in 1995 and has been very sucessful. The project involes 253,000 people in  73 favelas. 40% of the 3 million funding came from the local authority, the rest came from the Inter American Development Bank.

What are the effects? Day care centres and after school schemes are there to look after children whilst parents work. Adult education class to improve literacy and sercies to help those with drug or alcohol addictions. Residents can legally apply to own their own properties and their are training schemes to help people learn new skills so they can find better jobs and earn more. Wood has been replaced by brick and houses near slopes have been removed. Widening of the pavment to allow easier access, provision of basic services like electricity, clean water and a weekly rubbish collection. Residents choose what improvments they want to make so they feel involved.

Why has the project been so successful? The standard of living and healt of residents has improved, property values have increased by 80-120% and the amount of local businesses within the favelas have doubled.

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Where? South of Brazil, its main problem was having a sustainable transport system because of rapid urbanisation. Jaime Lerners idea was the Bus Rapid Transport System (BRT). 80% of travellers use the bus system, it was the first city in Brazil to have dedicated bus lanes, buses carry 2 million passengers a day, the bus fare is the same wherever you go, no one lives more than 400m from a bus stop.

Open Space? Curitiba has 52 square metres of openspace per head which is remarkable for a city that has trippled in size in the last 20 years. There are 28 parks and wooded areas in Curitiba giving it a landscape like in no other developing city. Although Curitiba struggles with housing arrangements there are plans for 50,000 homes to be built to hou 200,000 people.

Waste and recycling? Curitiba has a new recycling scheme called the Green swap where if you bring your waste to recycle you get something in reture like food or bus tickets which encourages people to recycle.  People can also swap food with one another and food bags are given containing things like; bannans, beans, carrots,eggs and rice.

Housing?  Developments like Linhas de Oficio give citizens an opertunity to work for themselves at home. 50,000 homes were built which enables people to help get their children out of the poverty cycle.

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