- The population of the world is growing at a exponential rate- this means its growing faster and faster.
- There are two things that are affecting populations growth: 1) Birth Rate 2) Death Rate.
- Natural Increase- when the birth rate is higher than the death rate, meaning the population grows.
- Natural Decrease- when the death rate is higher than the birth rate.
- Population growth can be affected in different countries by migration and the country's state (i.e LEDC or MEDC).
- There are five stages of population growth... this is show in a DTM (Demographic Transtion Model). 1) It begins with a high birth rate and death rate, with no population growth. 2) The birth rate stays high although the death rate falls rapidly, causing there to be a high population growth. 3) The birth rate drops rapidly and the death rate also falls slowly, this gives some population growth. 4) the birth rate and the death rate are low, with no population growth. 5) the birth rate is falling slowly, and the death rate staying the same, causing there to be a negative population growth rate.
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impacts of rapid population growth
- Healthcare and education aren't available to all.
- Some children miss out on education, because they have to work to support their large families.
- There aren't enough houses, meaning some people are forced to live in slums.
- Food shortages causing famine.
- Not enough jobs, meaning an increase in unemployment.
- Increased poverty, due to families having more children when they don't have enough money to support them.
- policies are focussed more towards important issues for the young like education and childcare, due to the population mainly being young.
- Fewer old people meaning policies aren't as focussed on pensions ect.
- policies need to be made to control population. This has already happened in china and other countries.
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strategies used to control population
Birth control programmes:- these are used to aim to reduce birth rate
- Some governments have laws about how many children you can have, for example China.
- Governments also help couples to plan how many children they have by offering free contraception and sex education at schools.
- Also by emancipation of women, this is by increasing their rights so they are seen to be equal to men. This means they can focus more on careers rather than having families.
Immigration Laws:- aimed to control immigration. (slows down population growth)
- Government can limit the number of people allowed to immigrate.
- Governments could be selective of who they let into their countries (i.e. letting in fewer people of child bearing age).
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- Ageing population- more older people than younger people.
- Generally richer countries
- Economically Active- People from 16-67 who work and pay taxes which supports the dependent's.
- Old dependent- People over 67 who are supported by the economically active,
- Young dependent- people from 0-16 who are dependent on the eonomically active.
- Taxes- The economically active pay taxes which the government use to pay state pensions for older people and to pay for services like retirement homes and healthcare.
- Some people say more money is spent on things that dont help the economy (i.e. retirement homes) other than things we do need that would help the growth of economy like education and business.
- older people need more healthcare
- many family members are needed to help look after the elders in the family meaning they miss out on careers.
To cope with an ageing population
- encourage larger familes, to increase the number of young people
- encouraging immigration of young people.
- Raising retirement age
- Raising taxes
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