geography f764 - skills CBD investigation

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Stage 1 - identify a suitable hypothesis

Alternate hypothesis 

'How and why do rateable values, pedestrian counts nad land-use vary with distance from the PLVI within Ipswich's CBD' 

  • 'Pedestrain flows decrease with distance from PLVI' 
  • 'Rateable values decrease with distance from PLVI'
  • 'Land-use changes with distance from PLVI with an increase in % of convenience stores' 
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factors that influenced choice of investigation

BROAD TOPIC 

  • Teachers input on practicality / feasibility 
  • CBD - urban change + structue of urban areas 

LOCATION (Ipswich)

  • easy access / no cost / few hazards / local knowledge 
  • lots of variables to test 

EXACT SITE AREA (Goad)

  • primary + secondary shopping / including PLVI 
  • suitable scale / testable area 

HYPOTHESIS 

  • geographical theories - BID RENT / THRESHOLD POPULATION / DISTANCE DECAY 
  • SMART 
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Stage 2 - develop plan - RISK ASSESSMENT

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location

GOAD 

  • covered sensible range size for data collection + suitable detail scale 
  • covered primary + secondary shopping areas 
  • doesnt show zone of advancement south 
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data

PRIMARY - PEDESTRAIN FLOWS 

  • 30 selected sites - reliability + accuracy (representative) 
  • point data 
  • both directions, just walking, for 2 mins 

PRIMARY - LANDUSE 

  • whole goad 

SECONDARY - RV 

  • 30 to keep data comparable + accurate 
  • Valuation Office Agency Site 

SECONDARY:

  • GIS / teacher / text books / stat tests / RV / theories / hypothesis 
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pilot study

  • test resources / equipment + adjust 
  • pre test data collection methods (sampling frames)
  • see if it can be done in given time + location 
  • identify hazards / problems 
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sampling methods

PEDESTRIAN FLOWS 

  • point 
  • 30 sites 
  • systematic / pragmatic 

LAND USE 

  • no sampling frame 

RV 

  • point 
  • 30 sites 
  • systematic - comparable 
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accuracy + reliability of collection

RELIABILTY 

  • only 30 sites 
  • sytematic - bias 
  • counts at different times of the day 
  • no repeat 
  • only 2 minutes 

ACCURACY 

  • pedestrian flow count - human error 
  • land use - not every building in each class 
  • weather 
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Stage 3 - collect and record data - RV

  • postcode of sites entered onto Valuation Office agency website 
  • of 30 buildings (comparable to Pedestrian flows)
  • systematic - even spread 
  • Goad maps to find distance frm PLVI 

LIMITATIONS 

  • secondary data (cannot be certain of validity)
  • standardised so size will not affect 
  • not all adresses had RV 
  • ruler used on Goad map - HUMAN ERROR 
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pedestrian flows

  • primary - reliability 
  • 30 sites as respresents statistical population, acheivable, statistically tested
  • systematic - evenly covered at every 8th building 
  • ensure DISTANCE tested - 4 groups 
  • 2 minutes of recording 

LIMITATIONS 

  • systematic - bias 
  • counting spread out over 1.5 hours 
  • perpendicular streets to PLVI - unsure if going to or away from PLVI 
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land use change with distance

  • primary data - classification index (incl. comparison + convenience)
  • pilot study - whole statistical pop. of Goad could be covered + hazards identified
  • groups 1-9 including primary and secondary shopping areas 
  • including PLVI + 'GOLDEN MILE' 
  • including Westagate st, Tavern st, Carr st 
  • split Goad into 4 sections for each group 

LIMITATIONS 

  • tough to classify each building 
  • larger stores could be both department and comparison 
  • Goad map created in year 2000 - now new buildings + shops (e.g. end of princess street estate agents + pub) 
  • Goad map created in year 2000- buildings knocked down 
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stage 4 - presenting data - RV

CHLOROPLETH MAP 

  • visually display RV of 30 buildings 
  • categories chosen evenly across range of RV 
  • chose 6 categories 
  • 'no data' category created 
  • simple + made good use of available resources 
  • light to dark shade depending on value 
  • each areal unit concealed + abrupt changes 

SCATTER GRAPH 

  • present in relation to distance 
  • distance was independent variable and RV were dependent variables 
  • simple and showed basic correlation 
  • see if stat. test should be carried out 
  • only suggests trend with no figure 
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Pedestrian Flows

ISOPLETH MAP 

  • easy to construct and pick out surface trends 
  • data added to isopleth, so no abrupt changes 
  • colouring scheme of light and dark for low and high values 
  • 3 classes to keep simple and effective 

SCATTER GRAPH 

  • to test distance with pedestrain flows 
  • clearly show points and how close to line of best fit 
  • examines relationship between 2 variables 
  • estimate correlation to see if further stat. tests need to be carried out 
  • anomalous points skew data 
  • 30 is max as becomes confusing 
  • only relationship between 2 variables 
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land use change with distance

DIVIDED BAR CHART 

  • used to show the 9 variables (classes) on each bar - so hypothesis can be tested 
  • created new index - removed grey areas in defining buildings - reducing HUMAN ERROR
  • each bar was 0-100m of 300m section (3 bars)
  • simple and allowed enough comparison 
  • could have been split into more for more accuracy (would have been tougher)
  • coulour scheme allowed visual representation 
  • data recovered for stat tests 
  • could have used 3 pie charts instead (visual comparison and % for stat analysis) 
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stage 5 - analyse and interpret data - RV

CHLOROPLETH MAP 

  • mulitple sites along 'GOLDEN MILE' are highest rate even with increasing distance 
  • outside this rates drop off suddenly 
  • supports hypothesis once passed Westgate St + Tavern St 

SCATTERGRAPH 

  • correlation overall supports the hypothesis - trend line 
  • Westgate (highest) UPPER ORWELL /CARR (lowest 

anomalies 

  • Tower Ramparts - bus stops - main entrance
  • St Matthews St - not pedestrianised - rapid decline 

STAT TEST 

  • -0.5 - 99% confidence level therefore can be very sure that sample is representative of total statistical population and isnt due to chance 
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Pedestrian Flows

ISOPLETH MAP 

  • 'GOLDEN MILE' has more of an inflence on pedestrain flows rather than single PLVI point
  • rapidly declines around golden mile 
  • different comparison shops and access points (car parks) affect p.flows 

SCATTER GRAPH 

  • negative correlation supports hypothesis 
  • -0.46 passing significance test at 95% confidence level 
  • time and p. flows has 0.329 passing significance test at 90% level (had some affect)
  • RV + p.flows has 0.897 passing at 99% confidence (strong relationship) 

ANOMALIES

  • low - St. Matthews st - west of PLVI - not pedestrianised
  • high - Tavern St. + PLVI - 'GOLDEN MILE' 
  • tower ramparts - vacant stores + redevelopment 
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land use change with distance

DIVIDED BAR CHART 

  • overall with distance from PLVI % comparison stores did decrease and % convenience increased 
  • 0-200m comparison increased a bit, then rapidly decreased 200-300m 
  • 0-200m convenience decreased to 0, then rapidly increased 200-300m

DIVERSITY INDEX 

  • a stat. test that allowed us to see diversity increase with comparison stores, showing lower % of that store with increasing distance 

VACANCY RATE - Upper Orwell - 0.529 = zone of discard + very low retail land value 

ANOMALIES

  • unexpected high value between 100-200m for comparison stores due to location along 'GOLDEN MILE' is close to Tower Ramparts + walkway to Buttermarket 
  • size of comparison store affected count - 1 big one will look less than lots of small 
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stage 6 - conclusion - RV

  • decline with distance 
  • support BID RENT + DISTANCE DECAY - 99% confidence level 

other factors 

  • west of PLVI - not pedestrianised 
  • values affected by who is resposible - owner occupied / reapirs / insurance 
  • not standardised values used - building size had a MASSIVE effect 
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Pedestrian Flows

  • accept alternative hypothesis 
  • negatove correlation with 95% significance 

OTHER FACTORS

  • time positive correlation 90% confidence (only measured over 1.5 hr period) 
  • RV poistive correlation 99% confidence - larger buildings higher RV (not standdardised) 
  • routed distance would have produced stronger relationship over straight line 
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land use change with distance

  • accept alternative hypothesis 
  • general trend that compaison stores do decrease with distance from PLVI 
  • GOLDEN MILE has most comparison - higher THRESHOLD POPULATION 
  • DISTANCE DECAY - as vacant stores increase 

OTHER FACTORS 

  • TOWER RAMPARTS - caused higher surrounding of comparison - access point to other shops
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