One Child Policy Stats
- China's population in 2006: 1.3 billion.
- Age structure: 0-14=20.8%, 15-64=71.4%, 65+=7.7%.
- Life Expectancy at birth in 2006: 72.6 years.
- Literacy rate: Male=95.1%, Female=86.5%.
- % population living below the poverty line: 10%
- China is an RIC (Recently Industrialised Country)
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Why is there a OCP? and China's growth
Why is the OCP?
- China has 25% of the world's population.
- China only has 7% of the Earth's arable lands and 5% of the Earth's fossil fuels.
- A large proporiton of the land is unsuitable for agriculture because there are mountains, deserts and dense forests.
- In 1949 China's population was 550million.
- Mao Zedong decided that China needed a larger population to fuel and industrial and agricultural revolution.
- This was called 'The Great Leap Forwards'.
- By 1976, the population had swelled to 900million.
- 2 thirds of the populatin were under 30 and as they were reaching their child bearing age there was a huge famine.
- A population cap was needed.
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The OCP and the Exceptions
- Each couple is allowed to have one child.
- That child's medical and educational expenses are paid for them.
- If you have more than one child, you are strongly encouraged to have an abortion.
- If you do have another child, you have to pay back all the costs of your first child and don't get any help with your first or second children.
- First child is severly disabled.
- Multiple births.
- Ethnic minorities.
- Farmers in rural areas if your first child is a girl.
- Couple who are both only children.
- If the first child dies.
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- Infanticide is the killing of babies.
- Girls are killed because they cannot support their families when they get older.
- They are sometimes left by the road, others are left to starve, others are fed poison in their milk.
- There are now 120 boys for every 100 girls.
- China is now missing around 35million girls.
- Girls are sometimes called Maggots in the rice.
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Impacts of China's OCP
- No pension system set up.
- Basic pension is equivalent of $8.75 a month.
- OCP could pressure 3rd generation to look after 6 elderly people as LE increases.
- $2.9 trillion social security defecit in 2013.
- OCP has prevented 400million births.
- People die of starvation.
- Bad pension system.
- Dozens of villages have a lot of men and barely any women.
- Backlash: more dependency : gender imbalance : increased divorce rate : sex-selective abortion : uneven implementation : negative growth
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