The Hydrological (water) cycle
The hydrological cycle is the movement of water between land, sea and the atmosphere. The key stages/terms are:
- Precipitation - All water released for the clouds as rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog.
- Surface Runoff - Water flowing across the surface, this could be in a channel (streams or rivers) or as overland flow which means it travels across fields or down roads.
- Interception - Where water is collected on objects such as leaves or roof tops.
- Infiltration - When water is soak into the soil.
- Thoughflow - Water soaks into soil and seeps through it towards a river or the sea.
- Percolation - Downward movement of water through soil into rocks.
- Groundwater Flow - Movement of water below the water table. water stored underground is called groundwater.
- Evaporation - Water heated then turns to water vapour and rises into atmosphere.
- Transpiration - Plants lose water throught leaves, water evapoates and returns to the atmosphere.
- Evapotranspiration - Processes involving both evaporation and transportation.
- Condensation - Water vapour cools and turns to water droplets.
- Water Table - Upper level of staturated ground. level is closer to the surface in water when there is plenty of rain.
The Drainage Basin
drainage basin is the area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. The boundray of the drainage basin is callws the watershed. this is usually a range of hills or mountains. rain falling beyond the watershed will flow into another river and is part of another drainage basin.
Drainage Basins cn also be represented in a systems diagram