Geography B

Geography ocr spectifation B

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The Hydrological (water) cycle

The hydrological cycle is the movement of water between land, sea and the atmosphere. The key stages/terms are:

  • Precipitation - All water released for the clouds as rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog.
  • Surface Runoff - Water flowing across the surface, this could be in a channel (streams or rivers) or as overland flow which means it travels across fields or down roads.
  • Interception - Where water is collected on objects such as leaves or roof tops.
  • Infiltration - When water is soak into the soil.
  • Thoughflow - Water soaks into soil and seeps through it towards a river or the sea.
  • Percolation - Downward movement of water through soil into rocks.
  • Groundwater Flow - Movement of water below the water table. water stored underground is called groundwater.
  • Evaporation - Water heated then turns to water vapour and rises into atmosphere.
  • Transpiration - Plants lose water throught leaves, water evapoates and returns to the atmosphere.
  • Evapotranspiration - Processes involving both evaporation and transportation.
  • Condensation - Water vapour cools and turns to water droplets.
  • Water Table -  Upper level of staturated ground. level is closer to the surface in water when there is plenty of rain.
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The Drainage Basin

drainage basin is the area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. The boundray of the drainage basin is callws the watershed. this is usually a range of hills or mountains. rain falling beyond the watershed will flow into another river and is part of another drainage basin. 

Drainage Basins cn also be represented in a systems diagram 

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