Bridges collasped causing dams. The rocks in the area are impermeable slate so the water could not be absorbed.
The Earth consists of layers with differnt densities-core, mantle and then the crust.
Radioactive decay of the core sets up convection currents in the mantle. The upper mantle acts like a membrane upon which the crust of the earth moves around. When the crust fractures a boundary, a margin is formed. Where 2 plates meet is called a deconstructive magin and where 2 plates come apart is called a constructive margin.
Earthquakes only occur at destructive margins. There are 3 examples of these margins:
- Conservative margin (san andreas fault)
The focus of an earthquake is where it originates and the point directly above the focus on the earth's crust is called the epicenter.
Haiti Earthquake continued
It occured in 2010 with a magnitude of 7.0. There were more than 100,00 deaths. More than 3 million people were affected. Charities helped out and America sent a boat and several supply planes.
As Haiti is a poor country their buildings were weaker. The reliefs efforts were slow because the airport was damaged and electricity was off.
To overcome these efforts the US took over the airport and supplies were dropped in. Buildings were reinforced and generators were used for electricity.
Mountain Saint helens Volcano
The volanco errupted in 1980. 57 people were killed and 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles of railways and 185 miles of highway were destroyed. Afterwards there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.1.
The volcano was being monitored for bulges and swellings, earthlquakes, changes in gases and changing surface temperatures. Tiltmetres are used and so are seismometers, air composition samples and thermal cameras.
Signs that the earthquake could errupt soon are rising magma, shifting magma and different gases being emitted. A blast zone was set up around the volcano however there was an unpredicted problem. Geologists predicted that the volcano would errupt and go upwards, however it went sideways. The precautions were set up well before the erruption so people soon became blasé.
Migration is the movement of people from one area to another. It can be permanent, seasonal or daily, national or international, forced or volantary and can sometimes involve a change of home.
Push factors: A push factor is something that forces a person to emigrate (that could be local, national or international). Wars, floods, pests, soil erosion or lack of work.
Pull factors: These are factors that attract people like a magnet (local, national or international). Work, schools, hospitals, shops, freedom of speech, civil rights and housing.
Refugees are people who have been forced to leave their home due to fear of persecution (war, race, religion, politics or environmental disasters.
Sustainable: Something which can be produced or used indefinetely without harm to the environment and which will be available for future generations.
LEDC= Less economically developed country
MEDC= More economically developed country
Coal and oil are fossil fuels, they can be used to produce energy however there is a limited supply of them and they produce carbon dioxide which damages the earths atmosphere.
Switching to wind power or hydro power will be sustainable. Solar panels can be used on a small or large scale.
Climate change is any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time.
Sport is a global phenomenon. It is the process by which sport has developed on an international scale and gained international scale. However because of this racism and sexism have been on a rise.
Gendered Sport: A sport that is largely available to one gender. This could include participation, employment or active support.
The Boscastle flood occured in 2004.The rainfall was very localised. 75 cars, 5 caravans, 6 buildings and several boats were washed into the sea; approximately 100 homes and businesses were destroyed; trees were uprooted and debris were scattered over a large area. In an operation lasting from mid-afternoon until 2:30 AM, a fleet of 7 Westland Sea King helicopters rescued about 150 people clinging to trees and the roofs of buildings and cars. No major injuries or loss of life were reported.