geography 1

climate change since ice age

Volcanic erruptions - 1815 Mount Tambora erupted-

effect following year extreme weather europe snow fall in summer .

Causes of current clinatwe change

Fossil fuels- Coal-gas-oil burnt produce Carbon Diox - contribute to Greenhouse effects causing climate change.

CHINA -75% OF ENERGY PROD FROM COAL - developing rapidly using coal Foss Fuel .

 GLOBAL CAR OWNERSHIP-increa global C-OWN - MEANING more oil used increa C02

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climate change

Methane - makes up 20% of GGas +20x more potent than CO2.

WETLANDS-INCREASE IN EMissions due to high temps

EGs Increase in rice production Sri Lanka - growing population

Cattle --INCREASE NO OF CATTLE- due to increas in Western style diet - cattle prod Methane during rumination .

 

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NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Crop Yields -

Tanzania - longer drought periods Farmers loose 1/3 of Maize crops .

India- 50% decrease in land avail for wheat due to hotter ,drier weather.

Kenya -Droughts every 3 yrs instead of every 10 yrs . crops & cattle lost .

Sea levels & marine environment

Bangledash-sea levels go up by 1m -17.5% of its land will be lost.

LONDON-City -Sea levels rise low lying coastal land will flood .

Great Barrier Reef-corals dying - due to increasing water temps due to GWarming

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negative effects of climate change 2

Glaciers.(melt)

Montana USA -Glacier National Park -creat 1910- there was 150 glaciers now only 30 next 30 yrs cud all disappear.

Antartic-90%of glaciers retreating.

Gulf Stream diverted -further south -resulting in colder temps western europe ie 0c in winter /8-10 summer ( much colder 10c cooler than average).

(GULF STREAM-a warm body of water that moves out of the gulf of Mexico& crossess the Atlantic,warming up the coast of UK)

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GLOBAL &LOCAL REsponses to C change

Global

1992-The Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro-1st international Treaty-aimed to stabilse Ghousegas emmissions.

1997 Kyoto Conference-181 countries sighned Kyoto Protocol- 1)GGAS emmissions to be cut by 5,2%compared to 1990 levels. 2) each country agreed to a national limit of emmissions ie 7%USA - 0% Russia 3) INCREASE OF 10% for Iceland & 8% Australia as not usesing all their allowances 4) to achieve emmissions targets countries could trade with each other ie Iceland could sell 2% of their un used targed to the EU.

2007 Bali Conference-180 countries present Bali roadmap agreements reached to secure future climate security

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Local CChange

BYLocal Governments -believe local councils can help reduce Carbon emmissions.

£4 mill given to councils to develop ideas -Woking Borough council - place solar pannelson public build roofs saving on power & emmissions.

BY SCHOOLS -LIVE SIMPLY-iNITIATED BY CATHOLIC CHURCH -TO educate students on choices in life- the impact on the world - Egs Schools introducing solar pannels to there schools to heat water etcnotices to switch lights off.

BY LOCAL INTEREST GROUPS EG" Manchester is my planet"-to reduce there carbon foot print .People who own /use cars with low carbon emmissions can apply for a Green Badge Parking Permit allowing them to have 25% off NCP car parking for 12 months .

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Sustainable development for the planet

Sustainable development is Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

EGs Food Industrty Asda / Walmart - distribution centre in didcot Oxfordshire Recycles all of its plastic packaging .Asda benefits because its paid fior its packaging- the environment benefits because plastic is not sent to landfil sites -unwanted packaging was put in a skip  &collect x4 a week - nowa new balercompressess the plastic to 10% of its norm size only needing to b collect x1 a week .the compressed bale is collected & recycled into bin liners .

NOKIA PHONES-was concerned old phones not been recycled.if every mobile user recycled x1 phone it wud save240,000tonnes of raw materials . NOKIA gave info on the website where to find rcycle points .& addresses of where to send .50% of mobile users change their mobile yearly.100% of mob can b re-cycled.

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Sustainability Large Organisations-GLOBAL

GE-LARGE global company- is trying to prod products in a more sustainabile way.Bymonitoring water useage & useing  recycled water in their boilers & cooling towers . 

Coal Fired Power stations-provide 38% of world energy - in China 75% of energy.emmissins of sulphur dioxide & Nitrious oxide r major contributors to acid rain & climate change.

Emmissions can be reduced- Amine scrubbers can be fitted to Power Station Chimneys. 98% of CO 2can be removed.

Scrubbers fitted into the flue of PStations  - 95% of Sulphur dioxide removed.In Germany all PS have scrubbers fitted.

Most PS have systems fitted removing 70% of Nitrogen emissions.

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Sustainability -workplace

Signs up - End of DayS- switch off - lights computers etc ,

Internet -paperless company -send info-not post

Rubbish - employees recycle in diff bins

Video conferencing -reduces Carbon footprint _not travelling car /train

Management of transport

Governments want people to give up their cars & use public transport .Car drivers will not use PT until its cheaper & efficient .

In Urban Areas of HICS & LICS - PEOPLE more dependent on private transport -Deli , India 1970 1/2 mill vehicles to 5 mill in 2008. 

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sustainable - Transport schemes - URBAN AREAS

Car - Sharing- 1 day a week vehicle pollution /congestion wud be reduced by10%.

Milton Keynes - 273km of cycle paths.

Road lanes - only allow cars with x2 passengers

Road Lanes Priorities to busses-Leeds York road A64

London Congestion Charge- £8 to enter centre7am-6pm mon-fri. Benefits 1-traffic levels reduced by 21 % 2 65000 fewer car journeys a day 3 12%increas in cycle journeys - Boris bikes Hyde Park 4 12% reduce emmissionsof nitrious oxide

Cambridge Park & RIDE .4500 PARKING SPACES -UP TO 70 PASSENGERSLEAVE THE PARKING EVERY 10 MINS DAYTIME MOM-FRI .£2.20 PER RETURN TICKET

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