Geography: Development Gap

  • Created by: JacobRees
  • Created on: 21-01-16 18:43

What is development and how is it measured?

  • The Geography of development is all about how wealth and the quality of life of people living on our planet varies from place to place.
  • We can study this on a local scale, and consider with our own community how different groups of people on one estate might be wealthier and have a better quality of life than others.
  • We could look at development a national scale, and consider how health and wealth change across the British Isles (life expectancy is lower in Scotland than it is in England for example).
  • The last scale we can look at is globally, because there are huge differences between the quality of life between countries and continents. There are 2 very broad groups of countries;
    • MEDCS
    • LEDCS
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What is development and how is it measured?

  • There are a huge number of measures that can be used to measure the level of Development of a place.  
  • These measures can be classified as Social – relating to the development of the people of the place; Economic, relating to the finances and wealth of the place; and Political, relating to the political systems and freedoms afforded by the place.  
  • Some countries may have imbalances in these measures, so a country may have very high levels of wealth and economic development, but poor levels of political freedom so poor political and social development.
  • It is therefore better to look at a NUMBER of different measures of development of places before coming to a judgment about its level of development.  
  • The most powerful individual number or measure is probable the Human Development Index, because it combines together economic and social measures into one figure. 
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Development Terms

  • GNP - Gross Domestic Product - value of all goods and services produced within a country per year. Usually per capita ie: divided by the population
  • GNP - Gross National Product - same as the GDP but also included money made abroad by companies who have their HQ in your country e.g. UK - BP
  • GNI - Gross National Increase - the total value of goods and services produced within a country including income recieved from and payments to other countries
  • Human Development Index (HDI) - A measurement which considers life expectancy, GNI and an education index to give a value between 0 and 1, 1 being the most developed.  
  • Birth Rates - How many babies are born per 1000 people in a population per year.
  • Death rates - How many people die per 1000 people in a population per year.
  • Infant mortality - How many babies die per 1,000 live births per year.
  • People per doctor - How many people there are for every doctor in a country or place
  • Literacy rate - What percentage of the country is able to read and write as adults.
  • Access to safe water - What percentage of people have access to sanitary and safe water that is free from bacteria and parasites. 
  • Life expectancy - The average age a person can expect to live to at birth. 
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