Access to Housing
Oxford, South-Central England, Inland, 90km North of London. Summertown: Suburban area to the North, Cowley an inner city area to the east, Blackbird Leys, suburban council estate.
- Main influnencing factor is wealth
- Summertown= 40% professionals, largely live in detatched and semidetatched (50%), 66% own their homes. Have wealth to access more desirable housing, AHP: 400,000 pounds. Access to services- M&S, Cherwell School, Leisure centres.
- Many ethnic groups live in inner city, Cowley (24%). Largely live in terraced homes (45%) and many rent their accomodation. Cheaper to settle here (AHP: 250,000) Larger variety of religious buildings, e.g. Mosques, attracting ethnic communities together.
- Lots of students also live in this area in rented, terraced homes- often house share for cheaper accomodation. Many bars and clubs, close to university and night life.
- Many lone parents and people who recieve benefits live in Blackbird Leys, a high percentage of unemployed people (9%). Mixture of terraced and flats, many of them rent from the council as they may be supporting them and has allocated that accomodation.
Distribution of Retail Services
- Cowley Road is located east of Oxford, a city in Oxfordshire, in central England, 90km north of London.
- Distribution of retail: Shopping Parade- east of Cowley Road, high and low order shops, distributed in a linear fashion, with some corner shops dotted around in random. Further east, there are som esmall corner shops, followed by Templars Square (just off Cowley Road), this is an out of town shopping centre which includes large retail stores (B&Q) They are clustered around a large car park. Outskirts of Cowley Road= another large shopping centre- Oxford Retail Park, includes low and high order goods, including a Tesco and is distributed in a cluster around a car park.
- Change in distribution: 1950s: small corner shops, some travelled to CBD, people living along Cowley Road would have used shopping parade. 1965- Templars Square opened, option for people who had a car. 1993, Oxford Retail park- convenient for commuters (free parking) Late 1990s= internet shopping.
- Impacts: students (25%)- easy access to Cowley parade and CBD- limited to out of town parks. Cars-more options. Without cars= limited to inner areas, alond Cowley Road. Elderly= easy access by foot to inner areas, corner shops=daily goods. Outskirts= easy access to outskirts but limited in inner bc. lack of parking and travel options.
Access to Services
Wallingford, 10 miles south of Oxford, Central England, inland.
- Description of access: numerous leaisure activites, rowing club east along River Thames, HighTone "Body Training Studio' gym central Wally along high street, Bullcroft park- access to fields tennis courts and basketball courts and bowls. North there is 'Castle Sport' centre, indoor centre, climing wall and astro turf.
- Explanation: Wealthy people living in and around Wallingford have easy access to all services - gym 40 pounds per month, rowing club= 432 pounds per year.
- Lower income= restricted bc fees but free access to Bullcroft and hourly sessions at Castle Sport centre from 3.50.
- Elderly and under 16s have restricted access bc of health issues. Elderly may be adviced against it and under 16s can't use it, but Bullcroft is open to everyone.
- Surrounding villages may struggle lack of transport services to Wallingford.
A planning issue
- Wallingford is in the south of Oxfordshire, 10 miles south of Oxford and surrounded by little villages such as Benson and Crowmarsh. There were plans to build a mid-sized Morrisons to the West of Wallingford on the Hothercroft industrial estate.
- Describe: Brownfield site (G Stow Engineering is relocating) 300 jobs, cafe, 280 space car park, petrol station, 25 million cost, extension of bus route (paid for by Morrisons) employ 50% of people within a 3 mile radius, Summer 2015 opening (lol rip)
- For: locals- cheaper alternative, easier than driving to Didcot. Town councillors- healthy comp. for Waitrose, boost local economy, Morrisons spokesperson (Laura Stubbs) provide healthy comp. and good for business. Elderly- can't drive so bus extension good, unemployed bc jobs, commuters- petrol station.
- Against: locals- worry about independent businesses, Elaine Hornsby- Wallingford 'In Business" Spokesperson and owner of 'First edition shoes' feels will pull people away from town centre, business decline, prefer in centre. Waitrose bc unwanted competition. Village representatives- more congestion.
Rural to Urban Migration
Rio de Janeiro, city in Breazil on the south-east coast, approx 840km SE of Brazillia and 420km east of Sao Paulo. Amapa is a state in north Brazil, coastal and approx. 2700km north of Rio.
- Push: Catinga climate - living conditions difficult, lack of rain, poor qual. mud housing, unsafe water, high infant mortality, lack of services, mechanisation means less people needed on farms
- Pull: Bright lights of Rio, jobs available in tourism, shipping and textiles, better services, good qual homes, big companies have offices, cultural hub
- Effects on Amapa= Positive: remittances, farms more profitable, less pressure on services, circular migration w. skils. Negative: spiral of decline, problems become worse, broken community, unbalanced population, 'brain drain'
- Effects on Rio= Positive= more workers, city grows= more status- Olympic games, more workers= more tax. Negative= more disease- Cholera outbreak in 1992, informal job sector increases, high levels of crime, pressure onservices, 30% population live in shanty towns, no rubbish collection, congestion on roads, Zika virus spreading..
Rural Management- conflict
Windermere, Lake District National Park, county of Cumbria, approx.110km north of Manchester north west England. Bowness and Ambleside are local settlements.
- Largest and longest natural lake, iconic part of LD. Windermere lake cruises are in the top ten most popular paid for visitor attractions. Lots of recreational activites, good scenery, 'World of Beatrix Pitter' in Bowness, rare fish- Arctic Charr.
- Problems and conflicts as a result of tourism: high cost housing (second home ownership), loss of traditional industries (boating building and woodcraft) people turn to tourism, risk to arctic charr, congestion and overcrowding (esp A591) Litter andbeach fires, recreational lake users, narrow range of seasonal, low paid jobs (Windermere Lake Cruises hires less people out of season) Footpath erosion.
- Sustainable solutions: extended cycle routes, 'Winderclean" annual litter picking, use of 'Lake Patrol Team' and 'Lake warden', less bins to encourage people to take away their litter, possible 'zoning' of the lake. new homes only for locals, new footpaths using local stone/ wood chip to strengthen and reduce erosion.
Desertification- fertile land graduallt turning into desert as it dries out in arid regions
Darfur a region in the south of Sudan, Sahel region of northern Africa, close to border of Chad.
- Human causes: deforestation (fuel wood, soil no longer protected from erosion, over 50% of pop use wood for fuel), global warming, human population increase (annual growth rate of 3.1%- urbanisation), over population of land, too n=many peoples- less nomanic farming and less fallow periods, over farming/ grazing - soil loses nutrients, no protection of land.
- Physical causes: seasonal rainfall patterns -dry season (Jan- April). Darfur= sandy soul, fewer trees= less evapotranspiration= less rainfall, soil dries out, high pressure- long periods of drought, rapid 'evapotranspiration' leaving limited water in soil.
- Effects: degradation of soil, less food (prod. down 20% 2001-2011) high risk of famine (2011 famine, 200 died, 500,000 recieving food aid, less fresh water, poverty, political instability, farmer conflict.
- Management ST: foreign aid. LT: laying stone line to collect water- encourages infiltration, collecting rainwater, edicating farmers how to use land best, build reservoirs (Merowe Dam in N.Sudan) reduce deforestation via alternative energy- solar devices, tree planting skills.
River Flooding -Last years!
- 2004 serious flood in Dhaka, central Bangladesh, Central Asia. Dhaka is capital of SE region, inland and 250km NE of Calcutta, India.
- Human causes: deforestation in Himalayas bc. growing population, exisitng flood defences were faulty- lack of money to renew, urbanisation (building on the floodplain) population of 7 million. Physical causes: TRIGGER: 341 mm of rain in 24 hours on 12th Sept 2004. Lots of confluences (Buri-ganga and Meghna), melting snow in Himalayas, monsoon rains (may-sept) half of Bang. 5m or less above sea level.
- Effects: 855 died, 2.2 billion in damages, 5 million cattle killed, 1 million homeless, 200 schools damaged, 40 bridges damaged, roads damaged, contaminated water supplies, over 100 clothing factories closed- prod. down 20%, electricity supplies disrupted. (Silt good on floodplain, flood water trapped, source of food)
- Short-term relief: million+ tonnes of international food aid, water purifcation tablets, gov. gave free seeds to famers, volunteers, refugee camps
- Long-term relief: plans to cope with future floods- early warning systems, flood embankments around richer areas of the city, dams proposed but cost too gih, housing rebuilt along w. infrastructure.
Management of the river at a local scale
Dhaka, Central Bangladesh, Balu river passes therough eastern Dhaka cauing floods.
- Why? annual flooding causes problems for inhabitants (e.g. 855 died in 2004) Urbanisation has increased surface runoff meaning river floods more frequently. Deforestation has increases risk, flooding damages infrastructure costing gov. lots.
- Local management: western, most densely populated part is protected by embankments built after 1988. Government are considering a 30km embankment, known as Eastern Bypass Project. Three large pumping stations to evaucate floodwater, special 10km embankment around Zia, dredging work in Balu river carried out regularly-asssit drainage and discharge. EWS.
- Impact of management: reduces impat of floods, recieved well by locals and businesses. Local council support- reduces amount of aid they need to provide. Schools and school children support, some farmers support to prevent death of cattle. Business support around Zia. Some farmers oppose bc silt. Locals worry anout 30km embankment bc. disruptive and eye sore. Local environmental groups oppose dredging because it is disruptive to the wildlife in the river.
Low Pressure Weather system
- Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans a city situated in the South of theUSA, Louisiana and on the coast of Gulf of Mexico, approx. 775km NW of Tampa, Florida.
- Formed over Caribbean 23/08/05, moved towards Gulf of Mexico towards New Orlenans. Hurricane- intense low pressure which produce violent weather with high winds, thick cloud and torrential rain.
- Hurricanes tend to develop over warm tropical seas, 27 degrees +, late summer, large areas of deep water, between latitudes 5 and 20 north and south of equator. Develop bc. warm air rises and draws up vapour from the ocean below, air cools and condenses, releasing the energy that powers the storm.
- Effects: damaged cities flood defences, broke through levees protecting N.W from Lake Pontchartrain. 1800+ died, 200 billion dollars damage, one million homeless, 200,000 houses destroyed, 220,000 jobs lost, 5 million without power, 40 schools destroyed 800 damaged, 25,00 shelter in superdome, most city flooded bc 80% below sea level. 1.3 acres forest gone
- Short term responses: media warnings (mostly ignored), evacuation order, Red Cross helped 1 million people in need of mental health, refugee superdome, army search and resuce;
- Long term: 220 miles of flood walls strengthened/replaced, better EWS, 1.3 million invested in hurricane warning radio, 17 billion allocated to re-build homes
Processes affecting the coast
- Christchurch Bay, Dorset south coast of Eng, 140km DW of London.
- Processes: main= LSD, erosion and slumping of the coastline. Erosion: coast retreated approx. 80 meters in last century, big prob. due to soft sand and clay-(hydraulic action and abrasion) Buildings lost in next 20yrs, some are 20metres from edge now. Slumping: occuring in some parts, sinking into sea. LSD: moving sand from west to east, no natural barrier to erosopn.
- Beach and cliff pop. w. tourists, good views of Christ. bay and the Needles,
- Landforms: beaches (Barton) Spits (Mudeford and Hurst Castle) Salt marsh (Stanpit behind Mudeford) River mouths (Avon, running into Stanpit marsh) Hengitsbury head headland, near Bournemouth, next to Mudeford spit.
- Users: tourists, walkers, locals, brd watchers, research institutions
- Chosen landform: HURST CASTLE SPIT: area of sand/shingle extends out to sea/grows across a river mouth, created due to transportation of beach material (LSD- PW) can be hooked backwards by secondary wind, salt marsh forms behind due to static water.
- Advantages: HC lies at end of spit, lots of tourists, SSSI salt marsh, spit is popular
- Disadvantages: environmentalists unhappy with tourists' use of spit, congestion, beach has a lack of sand.
- Management: aims to protect erodible cliffs at Barton on Sea. Wooden groynes in 1930s across beach. 1960s drainage system to take water out of cliff- v unsuccessful. 1960s steel sheeting, 1970s wooden groynes infront of Barton replaces w. rip rap. 1991 rip rap replaced across back of beach (carboniferous limestone) and these are v effective in reducing wave energy. 1990s beach nourishment.
- Advantages: protect businesses, protect tourist industry, protect buildings, some aesthetic.
- Disadvantages: harms wildlife (esp. hard engineering), eyesore may harm tourism, litter and pollution harming environment.
- Enivonmental sustainability: Stanpit Marsh is an SSSI approx. 65 hectares w. both freshwater and salt water habitats, good biodiveristy, including 14 rare/ endangered species. Hengitsbury head- nature reserve, parking around Mudeford is limited and expensiveo discourage high volumes of footfall on the spit.
- Socio/economic sustainability: sustaining peoples's homes and businesses.