GCSE History OCR - International Relations

These are revision cards for the whole of internation relations, sorry they are quite long haha :) Hope they are helpful x

p.s. I'm making ones for USA & Britain


Anti-German Feelings & Aims of the Big 3 at Versai

Strong anti-German feelings:

  • ended Nov 1918 - feeling stronger in France, most fighting there
  • Britain - many casulties, German U-boats almost starved Britain, challenged empire & navy
  • 1917 Russia withdrew - Germany punished them harshly, Treaty of Brest Litovsk

Clemenceau - wanted big revenge, many farms/villages destroyed, many deaths; invaded by Germany in 1870 - wanted to cripple Germany

Wilson - peacemaker; USA not affected much; wanted League of Nations; National Self Determination; 14 points

Lloyd George - midway position; businessmen worried Germany would rival Britain's trade; threatened Britain's empire & navy; thought Germany would want revenge if punished harshly; big trading partner - would damage Britain's economy if weakened

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Wilson's 14 points, Big 3 at Versailles & Treaty o

14 points - no secret treaties; open sea; disarmament; national self determination; Poland to be an independent state; League of Nations

Big 3 at Versailles - French: Wilson too soft; wanted Rhineland demilitarised; Saar coalfields under international control; British: French thought they were too soft; keen to punish Germany - colonies & navies; nervous about self determination; could lose empire

How Treaty of Versailles punished Germany:

  • Reparations - huge fine to Allies, mainly France; £6,600 mil
  • Military - Rhineland demilitarised; army 100,000; not allowed submarines, aircraft, only 6 ships; conscription forbidden
  • Land - colonies taken away; Prussia & port of Danzig given to Poland; forbidden to join with Austria; Saar coalfields not allowed for 15 years; Alsace Lorraine given back to France; Sudetenland given to Czechoslovakia; lost 10% of land
  • War Guilt - had to sign document saying they took full blame for WW1 
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How Germany reacted to Treaty & how it affected it

How Germany reacted - horror & outrage; thought they were winning; felt other countries were responsible too; paying £6,600 mil would ruin economy; losing colonies - lose German pride; 100,000 army, was 2 mil in WW2

How Treaty affected Germany - made new government look weak; civil war - communists wanted revolution, nationalists wanted to fight Allies; economy downhill rapidly; 1922 got behing payments so French invaded & occupied Ruhr, took factories there

Inflation - tried to pay reparations by printing worthless money; caused inflation; 1923 prices doubling everyday; people bartered instead; hyperinflation - currency collapses; people who saved money were now ruined; rich avoided worst effects - wealth also based on property, jewellery etc

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Were the Big 3 happy, was Treaty fair & other trea

Clemenceau - thought Germany weren't punished enough; unpopular in France & voted out of government in 1920

Wilson - disappointed; Germany would want revenge; got League of Nations, Congress didn't let USA join it

Lloyd George - popular in England; believed Treaty would lead to another war

Was Treaty fair? - too harsh, led to rise of Hitler & WW2 - hindsight; at the time thought Germany was responsible; if it was any fairer France & Britain would've been angry; Germany very harsh on Russia; easier for USA to be generous

Other treaties:

  • Treaty of St. Germain - Austria, lost land to Poland & Italy
  • Treaty of Trianon - Hungary, lost land to Romania & Czechoslovakia
  • Treaty of Nevilly - Bulgaria, lost some land & access to Mediterraniean Sea
  • Treaty of Sevres - Turkey, lost control of Egypt & Morocco
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Aims of the League & USA out of the League

Aims - prevent further conflicts; disarm; if any country was attacked, other countries would defend it; economic sanctions; thought Wilson was too idealistic; countries willing to try to avoid another war

USA out of League - fatal blow to the League; president has limited power; trouble persuading USA to join

Why USA didn't join - reluctant to join WW1, didn't want to be sucked into another war; didn't want League to tell them what to do; businessmen didn't like economic sanctions; 1920 Americans wanted to focus on USA to be a wealthy & prosperous country

  • 1920 Congress voted against US joining League
  • Wilson devastated - USA was world's biggest economy after WW1, gave huge influence
  • League would be much weaker
  • Russia & Germany absent from League, further weakened it
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How the League worked

Aims - discourage aggressiveness; encourage coorporation; encourage disarmament; improve living & working conditions all over the world

Britain & France most powerful countries in League - both in poor position after WW1, struggled to control empires; League feared sanctions wouldn't work without USA; French determined to bypass League if Germany threatened them again

1. Assembly - like parliament of League, met once a year

2. The Council - smaller group, met more often & in emergencies

3. International Labour Organisation - improve lives & conditions of workers

4. Court of International Justice - made rules for countries

5. The Secretarist - civil service of League

6. Mandates Commission - looked after terrorists; Refugees Committee - helped refugees after WW1; Slavery Commission - worked to abolish slavery; The Health Committee - dealt with diseases

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What League did in 1920s

  • Refugees - helped 0.5 mil return home; prevented cholera & typhoid spreading in camps; SUCCESS
  • Socal problems - banned big companies from dealing drugs; freed 200,000 slaves; campaigned against prostitution; still big problems in the world; MIXED SUCCESS
  • Disarmament - Japan, Britain & France limited navies but that was it, Germany forced to; FAILURE
  • Working conditions - banned lead in paint & limited child working hours; tried minimum of 48 hours a week but only few countries agreed; MIXED SUCCESS
  • Health - reduced leprosy & started killing mosquitos; few decaded malaria eradicated; SUCCESS
  • Transport - simplifed shipping lanes; introduced international highway code; SUCCESS
  • 1926 Locarno Treaty - Germany allowed into League; 1929 Kellogg-Briand Pact - 65 nations condemned war as a way of solving problems
  • Economic recovery - France, Britain & Germany in bad state; USA in a boom so lent money to countries to rebuild economies, less disputes
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How Successful was the League in 1920s?

  • Failed to settle dispute between Poland & Lithuania - allowed Poles to get away with aggression, showed weakness
  • Locarno Treaty - good as it made relations better between France & Germany
  • Improved living & working conditions - reduced working hours, disease, social problems
  • Disarmament - only Germany forced to, was a failure
  • Settled some border disputes - Aaland Islands, Bulgaria & Silesia; in Corfu many thought Mussolini got away with being a bully
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1929 Depression & League in decline

Britain - huge unemployment, less willing to get involved in foriegn dispute

Germany - USA had to withdraw loans to Germany, caused unemployment & turned to Nazis

Japan - threaten Japanes industry, wanted to expand to Manchuria

Italy - wanted to expand to Abyssinia so economy could get a boost

France - worried Germany was growing strong; built fortresses called Maginot Line, gave false hope

Usa - even more focused on own economy, unwilling to sanction Italy

  • 1931 - Japan expanding empire - invaded Manchuria, DID NOTHING
  • 1933 - Hitler came to power - challenged Treaty, withdrew Germany
  • 1935 - Mussolini invaded Abyssinia - got away with aggression
  • Hitler - 1936 re-entered Rhineland; 1938 Joined with Austria & took over Sudetenland; 1939 invaded Czechoslovakia; 1939 Invaded Poland - LEAGUE DID NOTHING!
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Manchuria Crisis

  • Japan growing since start of 20C, economy badly hit, bagan to expand to nearby China
  • Built railway in Manchuria; attacked by Chinese, used as an excuse to invade
  • China appealed to League for help, Japan important member & didn't want to annoy it
  • League sent investigators, issued Lytton Repoty 1 year later, Japan withdrew from League & stayed in Manchuria; only Russia & USA could send troops - not in the League
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Abyssinia Crisis

  • Abyssinia - fertile land & mining wealth; 1934 dispute between Italian & Abyssinian, used this as an excuse
  • 1935 Mussolini pretended to negotiate, actually building army to invade; Britain & France didn't want to annoy him; Sept 1935 League said he could have part of Abyssinia - rejected this
  • October 1935 - attacked Abyssinia; League imposed sanctions but not oil, didn't work without USA; Britain & France could have close Suez Canal; Hoare Laval Pact - gave Italy 2/3 of Abyssinia; USA disgusted & increased oil sales to Italy
  • March 1936 - Hitler militarised Rhineland, Britain & France wanted to keep Mussolini onside; League abandoned Abyssinia; Haile Selassie (Abyssinian Emperor) went into exile
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Why League failed in 1930s & Hitler's views

  • French & British self interest - e.g. Manchuria, scared of losing trade with Japan; Abyssinia, wanted Mussolini onside
  • Absent powers - USA & Russia
  • Ineffective sanctions - weren't used/didn't work e.g. Abyssinia
  • Lack of armed forces - League had no army, only Britain & France could of sent troops
  • Unfair Treaty 
  • Reached decisions too slowly - Assembly only met once a year
  • Economic depression in 1930s - countries self-interest & conflict over trade, increased international tension

Hitler's views:

  • "Germany needs more land - lebensaum, large population, needs feeding"
  • "Destroy communism to the east, USA, Britain & France want this too"
  • "Germany must be strong again, revenge on French for WW1 treatment"
  • "Treaty must go - unfair, only Germany made to disarm, lost land & money, deserve respect"
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Hitler's actions

  • 1933 - took Germany out of League, started to rearm
  • 1934 - tries to take over Austria - stopped by Mussolini
  • 1935 - vote held in Saar Region, 98% want it returned to Germany
  • 1936 - conscription, reoccupies Rhineland, alliance with Japan
  • 1937 - new German air force, help in Spanish Civil War (Guernica), Luftwaffe - bombing civilians would lead to victory
  • 1938 - took over Austria & Sudetenland
  • 1939 - took over rest of Czechoslovakia, pact with Russia, invaded Poland - WAR

Rearmament - secret at first, popular with Germans, help unemployment, Britain wanted Germany to be strong to fight against communist Russia, 1932-39 trebled no. of warships, 8,000 aircraft, 1 mil army

Saar Plebiscite (vote) 1935 - Saar region under League control for 15 years, rich in coal & iron, 98% wanted it German

Anschluss with Austria 1938 - many Austrains wanted more strength, leader Schuschnigg thought Germany was trying to take over Austria

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Arguments For & Against Appeasement

For (Britain):

  • USA won't support another war
  • Treaty of Versailles was too harsh anyway
  • In an economic depression, focus on own economy
  • WW1 was terrible, another war would be even worse with new technology & weapons
  • Poorly equipped for war
  • Need strong Germany to stand up the communist Russia

Against (France)

  • Germany becoming too strong - every time he takes he gets stronger
  • Convincing Stalin we will never stand up to him, may make a deal with Hitler
  • Trusting Hitler too much, keeps breaking promises
  • Encourages him to take more
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Sudetenland Crisis 1938 & Nazi-Soviet Pact August

  • Many Germans in Czechoslovakia
  • Chamberlain went to Germany & Hitler promised he wouldn't take Sudetenland
  • Hitler then wanted only some parts, increased demands to all of it
  • Britain, France & Italy agreed to give him all of it
  • 'Peace in our time', Chamberlain 'avoided' war
  • Hitler promised Sudetenland was last of his demands, March 1939 invaded rest of Czechoslovakia - never German
  • Appeasement failed - Poland would be next, might finally face resistance

Nazi-Soviet Pact:

  • Stalin became worried with appeasement of Germany, Stalin & Hitler signed a pact & suprised everyone
  • Hitler - won't have to fight 2 fronts, can carve up Poland between them, conquer Poland quickly
  • Stalin - Soviet Union can't fight Nazi Germany in 1939, need time, got land taken from us in 1920, can't rely on France, Britain & League to help us
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War & Chamberlain

Nazis invaded Poland 1st September 1939, didn't withdraw, Britain declared war Appeasement wrong policy? Chamberlain badly thought of in history, at time people agreed with him; Churchill opposed appeasement, strong & brave Chamberlain: Hero? - desperate to avoid war; Britain not in fit state to fight Germany in 1938 - Munich Crisis; most Britains thought Germany deserved more; couldn't trust Hitler, gave Britain more time Villian? - trusted Hitler too much - Sudetenland; made war more likely, not less; could have joined with Stalin to keep Hitler under control; exaggerated fear of German army, could have stood up to them easily

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