Fundamentalism brief overview.

  • Created by: Lyndsey
  • Created on: 06-06-12 19:42

Revivalism Features of Fundamentalism

  • Members of Fundamentalist movements see themselves as saviours of society - able to justify any act (extreme or personal sacrifice).
  • See world in black and white - good or bad actions, enemies or friends.
  • Can have peaceful methods.
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Wallace's Revitalisation Processes

1) Social change produces social tension.

2) Cultural tension produces an attempt to accommodate, leading to distortion and change in social patterns, causing social disruption.

3) In a response to cultural tension fundamentalism emerges in the form of an orthodox restatement of cultural patterns. This is spread through evangelism and charismatic leaders.

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Turner's 'Social Dramas'

  • Social change is like a ritual process. In ritual individuals are transformed from one status to another.
  • This is done firstly by removing from society to a 'liminal space.'
  • In this state the individual receives training and instruction applicable to their new status. Normal rules of social life are suspended.
  • The transformed members are reincorporated into society in their new status.
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Similarities Between Turner and Wallace

  • In social dramas, society tranforms when a 'social breach' occurs.
          - This social breech is like Wallace's first stage (cultural tension produced by social change).
  • Turner says the social breach leads to a period of liminality when change takes place. In this period normal social rules are suspended or even reversed.
         - This is like Wallace's second stage.
  • In the final stage, Wallace and Turner agree that a new social order is established.
  • Turner's theories were developed to explain shorter events than what Wallace's theory explains.
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Rise of Fundamentalism by Eric Sharpe

Three phases of development:

1) Rejection - traditional authority is challenged.

2) Adaption - attempt to accomodate old philsophy with the new.

3) Reaction - fundamentalist practice arises.

Is similar to Wallace's earlieer analysis.

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Summary of Islamic Fundamentalist Revival Movement

  • Through C18th European gained economic and military power due to their wealth from the Industrial revolution. This = devastating to Muslims.
  • Spurred Islamic movement followers with views of the Golden Age (C8th-C18th) when they were wealthy, independent, militantly strong etc.
  • al-Afghani aroused Muslims and advocated a return to this Golden Age, a reform of Islamic law to meet the requirements of modern age and a violent resistance to the West who stole their power.
  • He saw Govt in the middle east as corrupted by W influence/values. His solution was the three points in bold.
  • His movement was widespread. He had a revivalist agenda and his successors used a variety of methods to achieve the revivalist foal.
  • Successors: Muhammad Abduh, Islamic Brotherhood, assassins of Egyptian President Sadat & Hamas (responsible for suicide bombing in Spring 1996).
  • Islamic movement success = Iranian Revolution 1979, helped by a successor of al-Afghani. Aim to return to period of harmony & rel strength.
  • Muslims do not all agree with the Iranian revolutionaries but have been inspired that fund Islamic revival can take place, even for a whole society.
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