Tudor Foreign Policy

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Foreign Policy Under the Duke of Somerset

Somerset wished to reassert the ancient claim of the King of England to suzerainty over Scotland

He wanted to enforce a marriage between Edward VI and Mary Queen of Scots

In doing so he would unite the crowns of England and Scotland

Somerset's method was that of rough wooing. He tried to defeat the Scots in battle and then build and garrison a number of forts along the border.

This started well with the Battle of Pinkie in 1547. However Somerset did not have the funds to support such a campain and he was forced to debase the coinage. This raised £537,000 but heightened Inflation pressures

In attacking Scotland, Somerset allowed Anglo-French relations to deteriorate further

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Foreign Policy Under the Duke of Northumberland

Northumberland could see the crippling effect garrisoning forts in Scotland was having on the English Economy

He withdraws English garrisons from Scotland and abandons marriage proposals between Edward and Mary Stuart aswell as agreeing the position of the border

In order to heighten Anglo-French relations, aswell as save money, Northumberland also handed back Boulogne to the French and proposed a marriage between Edward and Elizabeth of France

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Foreign Policy Under Mary I

Mary was eager to secure a Catholic marriage to Philip II of Spain, the son of her mother's nephew Charles V

In doing so, Mary isolated the French and Scotland

As a result of the marriage, England was brought into Philip's wars with France

Despite loosing Calais and gaining unfavourable terms at the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis however, this might not have been a bad thing. As early as 1555 the Privy Council were reviewing the condition of the navy, which had declined under Northumberland. They also passed the Militia and Arms act which brought improvements to the arrangements for raising and mainting county milias.

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Foreign Policy Under Elizabeth (France)

Elizabeth, although reluctantly, aided the Scottish Lords of Congregation against Mary Queen of Scots in 1559 by blockaded the port of Leith

However this risked offending France as Mary was the wife of Francis II and the daughter of Mary of Guise. Elizabeth also did not want to interfere in the domestic affairs of another nation in which the subjects were rebelling against sovereign authority

This risk was reduced when Francis II died and Mary returned to Scotland, where she accepted the political and religious power of her enemies. The treaty of Edinburgh secured peace between the Scottish Lords and England

In 1562 Elizabeth sent aid in the form of 6,000 men and £30,000 to Louis Prince of Conde. She aimed to help her co religionists and put pressure on France to return Calais. However this resulted in the permanent loss of Calais and the indemnity she had secured at Cateau- Compresis

In 1572 Elizabeth signs the Treaty of Blois. It was a defensive pact against a 3rd party attacker. France abandoned Mary Stuarts claim to the English throne and preperations began for the marriage of Henry, Duke of Anjou to Elizabeth.

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Foreign Policy Under Elizabeth (Spain)

At the beginning of the reign, Philip twice persuaded the Pope not to excommunicate Elizabeth and actively encouraged Habsburg relatives to seek a marriage alliance with her

However, tensions started to arise when Sir John Hawkings attempted to break the Spanish trade monopoly with Elizabeth's support

The relationship became more strenuous with the supposed plans of Philip to send and army to the Netherlands, Englands trading hub

In 1568 Elizabeth impounded 400,000 Florins from Genoan bankers heading to the Netherlands on behalf of Spain

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