Flood Management Schemes

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  • Created by: Isla S
  • Created on: 11-05-14 21:14

Hard Engineering

  • Dams: water stored temporarily in a reservoir and regulates the rate at which water passes into the river downstream of the dam
  • Embankments: artificially raised and strengthened banks enable the river channel to carry a greater volume of water. Sometimes parrallel lines of flood banks act as a double form of protection - if river rises over first, it may not be able to rise over second
  • Channelisation: rivers artifically straightened with concrete - water pass more rapidly along the channel
  • Channel Enlargement: involves dredging and the removal of large boulders from river bed - increases channel efficiency and reduces roughness - increases rate of flow
  • Flood Relief Channels: take excess water around a settlement
  • Flood storage resevoirs: excess water stored here and used for other purposes such as recreation
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Soft Engineering

Slow down rate at which water enters the channel and reduces the amount of water that reaches the channel - more sustainable in long term - doesn't cause problems for the future

  • Afforestation: replanting trees - slow down rate at which water reaches the river, and will reduce the volume
  • Agricultural land use management: contour ploughing, leaving crop stubble in the ground over winter and strip farming in semi-arid areas helps to reduce the amount of surface runoff - reduces liability of flooding
  • Land-use zoning: using land directly next to the river for grazing and recreational activity - allowed to flood when necessary. With suffificient warning, animals can be moved to higher ground.
  • Wetland and river bank conservation: Existing natural river channels and their valleys are protected so that habitats and species diversity can be maintained. 
  • River restoration schemes: aim of these schemes is to return rivers to their original, pre managed state, to work with nature to improve the quality of river water.
  • Forecasts and warnings
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China's - The Three Gorges

  • Chang Jiang river
  • world's largest dam
  • 2.3km long
  • >100m high
  • $25 billion
  • highly controversial worldwide
  • essential to reducing escalating flood damage, water and power shortages
  • Benefits
  • water supply
  • HEP replaces thermal power - environmental
  • Disadvantages
  • Relocation
  • Loss of farmland
  • Loss of cultural heritage
  • Loss of social tradition 
  • Increased pollution
  • Habitats
  • Political - war - dam a vulnerable target
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