FAMILY DIVERSITY

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Arti
  • Created on: 04-05-13 07:38

card one

  • Changing family patterns has increased family diversity
  • Decrease in nuclear families
  • more lone parent families
  • single housholds
  • more couples cohabit (hetero/homosexual)
  • more remarriages
  • more divorce
  • more children outside of marriage
1 of 17

RAPPOPORTS- 5 types of family diversity

says there are five types of family diversity C (CULTURAL) C (CLASS) O (ORGANISATIONAL) L (LIFE STAGE)G (GENERATIONAL)

CULTURAL: different cultures, religions, ethnic groups have different family structures. E.g. high no of female headed families in afro carribean households

CLASS: differences in child rearing, income differences, households differences. Bernstein-w/c maybe socialised into the restricted code rather than elaborated. Welfare dependency increases lone parent familys.

ORGANISATIONAL: differences in the way roles are organised. E.G. some couples have joint conjugal roles and 2 wage earners, others have segregated conjugal roles and one wage earner

LIFE STAGE: family structure differs, depends on the life stage reached e.g. newlyweds, couples with children, children leave, widowed, live alone

GENERATIONAL: older and younger generations have different attitudes and experiences e.g. different views on cohabitation and divorce

2 of 17

modernists again

Modernists such as functionalists and new right are structural views, they see family as a structure that shapes family members behaviour

structural modernist approaches: ignore 2 facts

1) individuals make choices about family life and structural views assumed actions are shaped by societies needs

2)we have more choice and diversity so we cant talk about a single dominant family type

3 of 17

LIFE COURSE ANALYSIS

To understand family life we need to look at family members and their choices

HAREVEN: says we should use life course analysis to do this, it starts from the idea that we have variation in peoples family lives (choices, timing, decisions and sequence) e.g. decision to have a baby or come out as gay

it has 2 stengths:

1) focuses on what family members see as important and looks have family change in the view of family members and we can see the meanings they give their choices

2) good for studying families todays, where theres more choice. Family structure is caused by the choices made by family members

4 of 17

FAMILY PRACTICES

MORGAN: uses family practices which is routine actons that increase our sense of being a family member e.g. feeding children and doing DIY

its been influenced by our beliefs about our duties e.g. men may see feeding the children as a womans job

Family practices show how conflict arises as different family members have different beliefs and expectations about eachothers responsibilities

Morgan says family practices is a way of creating relationshops and says families arent structures they are what people do.

Functionalists say family is a seperate part from society BUTTTT

MORGAN says society is fragmented, networks such as friends and family have become blurred.

Morgan doesnt reject structural views but family practices have an influence on family members actions.

5 of 17

POST MODERNISM AND FAMILY DIVERSITY

say we don live in a modern world where there is only one family structure- the nuclear family.

In post modern society family structures are fragmented and individuals have more choice

diversity has advantages and disavtages

:)- gives individuals freedom and they can create their own family type that meets their needs

X- more freedom means more risk of instability and relationships are more likely to break up

6 of 17

REASONS FOR FAMILY DIVERSITY: GIDDENS choice and e

Family and marriage have changed as people have more choice and equal relationships between men and women

* CONTRACEPTION: has allowed same and intimacy instead of resproduction being the main reason for a relationship

*Women have more independence because of more work and educational opportunities

*Cuples can define their relationship, instead of acting out roles defined by laws e.g. many couples choose to cohabit instead of marry

-Giddens says this is a PURE RELATIONSHIP as it meets partners needs, couples stay together because of love and happiness rather than duty e.g. for the sake of the children. Relationships have become the process of self discovery

Giddens says more choice has made relationships less stable as they can be ended by any partners

7 of 17

BECK AND BECK- RISK SOCIETY AND NEGOTIATED FAMILY

BECK and BECK says live in a risk society because we have more choice so aware of risks. As making choices means calculating risks and rewards. Todays risk society differs from the time when roles were fixed and people had less choice. e.g. people were expected to marry, once married men were expected to do housework and childcare.

Although the tradtional nuclear family was unequal and oppressive it provided a stable base for family life as it defined each members roles BUTT

the traditional nuclear family has been challenged in two ways

1)more gender equality challenged male dominance, women expect equality at work and in marriage

2)Individualism: peoples actions are based on own interests instead of a sense of duty towards others

Theese trends have led to a new family type: Beck and beck call it the NEGOTIATED FAMILY:

-dont conform to tradtional norms and values

-relationship on equal basis

-less stable as individuals are free to leave

-people turn to the family as a haven of security but family relationships are now at RISK

8 of 17

STACEY- DIVORCE EXTENDED FAMILY

-More choice benefited women they are free from oppression and can shape the family to meet their needs

-women are the main reason for changes in the family

-women interviewed rejected the housewife role, they work and have career prospects and can make their own family type to meet their own needs

One type of family is the DIVORCE EXTENDED FAMILY- family members are related by divorce instead of marriage for e.g. previous mother in law and daughter in law anddddd mans ex wife and new partner

MORGAN: says there is no point in generalising as there is not a single family type.

9 of 17

WEEKS-GROWING ACCEPTANCE OF FAMILY DIVERSITY

-long terms changes in attitudes SINCE 1950'S

sexual morality has become a personal choice, church and state have less of an influence on individual morality

growing acceptance of sexual and family diversity, attitudes to cohabitation and homosexuality are more positive.

Even though there have been changes...its still tradtional:

-people still marry divorce and remarry

-bought up by couples

-live in a family

10 of 17

FOR FAMILY DIVERSITY:

-post modernists and feminists reject new right and functionalists view that the best family type is the nuclear family

weeks: says family is defined by members, its not natural is sociall constructed

stacey: says diversity gives freedom and lets women create their own family type to suit their needs

11 of 17

AGAINST FAMILY DIVERSITY

-held by functionalists and new right.... see ONE BEST FAMILY TYPE....

THE TRADITIONAL PATRIARCHAL NUCLEAR FAMILY (CONVENTIONAL)

Married couple

dependent children

and a clear division of labour (women are the homemkaers and men are the breadwinners (instrumental and expressive roles)

12 of 17

Modernism (against diversity)

Functionalists and new right are modernist views

they see modern industrial society as having ine best family type which is the traditional patriarchal nuclear family

Functionalist: PARSONS says there is a functional fit of the nuclear family in modern industrial society. As it is geographically and socially mobile. Says the family performs 2 irreducible functions

1) primary socialisation of children

2) stabilisation of adult personalites

Other family types are seen as abnormal.

THE NEW RIGHT: have a conservative+ anti feminist view

believe there is only one family type (N/F) (couple with dependent children and a clear division of labour)

13 of 17

continuous

sees family based on biological differences between men and women (women are NATURALLY suited to the nuturing role) ---- link to parsons instrumental and expressive roles

They believe an increase of family diversity is because of social problems such as high crime rates and educational failure

Say lone parent families are harmful to children, lone mothers are unable to discipline children and boys lack a male role model

against women working, say they should care for the family

see marriage as a stable environment to bring up a child, cohabitation and divorce has created instability and its easier to avoid commitment

AMATO: says children in these families are likely to be poverty, educational failure and health problems -used to support the idea that family and society are broken and a return to tradtional values such as marriage will stop damage to children.

CRITICS say marriage may not protect from family breakdown but commitments, those who are committed to eachother are likely to get married

The new right are against policies such as tax and gov spending that affect family. The say family breakdown increases lone parent families and leads to welfare benefits and places a burden on the working population.

Benefits encourage irresponsible behaviour (its a perverse incentive) which discourages people from supporting their family and encourages welfare dependency . Cutting benefits will reduce the dependency culture and encourage the tradtional nuclear family (conventional nuclear family)

criticisms:

OAKLEY: says new right assumes husbands and wives roles are fixed but there is variation, oakley says the new rights view is a negative reaction towards feminists campaign for equality.

FEMINISTS: say TNF oppresses women and stops women from working and keeps them financially dependent on men (as they dont like welfare benefits, welfare benefits can make women have a divorce as they feel like they are a reliable source of income and therefore dont have to be dependent)

CRITICS: say there is little evidence of lone parent families being apart of the dependency culture

14 of 17

continuous

CRITICS say marriage may not protect from family breakdown but commitments, those who are committed to eachother are likely to get married.

Benefits encourage irresponsible behaviour (its a perverse incentive) which discourages people from supporting their family and encourages welfare dependency . Cutting benefits will reduce the dependency culture and encourage the tradtional nuclear family (conventional nuclear family)

X-OAKLEY: says new right assumes husbands and wives roles are fixed but there is variation, oakley says the new rights view is a negative reaction towards feminists campaign for equality.

X-FEMINISTS: say TNF oppresses women and stops women from working and keeps them financially dependent on men (as they dont like welfare benefits, welfare benefits can make women have a divorce as they feel like they are a reliable source of income and therefore dont have to be dependent)

X-CRITICS: say there is little evidence of lone parent families being apart of the dependency culture

15 of 17

CHESTER- neo-conventional family (For diversity)

CHESTER: says the only change is from the traditional nuclear family to the neo conventional family (dual earner, both go to work and similar to young and willmotts symmetrical family)

-chester doesnt see evidence of a big change and most people are choosing alternatives to a nuclear family. Chester found evidence that little has changed:

-most people live in a household headed by a married couple

-most marriages continue until death

-children are reared by two parents

-cohab has increased (tends to be a temp stage. most couples get married of they have children)

-divorcees get remarried

16 of 17

contin.

-increase in divorce

-births outside of marriage have increased and jointly registered

Although many people aren't apart of the nuclear family at any one time, due to the life cycle. People who live in a one person households (divorcees, young, widows were all apart of the nuclear family or will be)

criticisms of new right and functionalists: CHESTER says family diversity has been exaggerated. Only sees one big difference from conventional to neo-conventional

17 of 17

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Families and households resources »