10 Hour Movements & Short Time Committees
- Leader of Manchester Spinners Union that became centre of 10 hour movement.
- Did not want anyone working more than 10 hours in factories, children/adults alike, but wanted to start with better rights for children.
- Michael Sadler - Tory MP and factory owner, tried to introduce Bill 1831 to regulate children's working hours, but lost seat.
- John Fieldon - believed if working class got better wages, would help economy.
- Richard Oastler - 'poor man's friend', Tory who led 10 Hour Movement, against 'Yorkshire Slavery'.
- Lord Ashley - Earl of Shaftesbury, Tory and then peer from 1851. 'Champion of Factory Reform' - responsible for Mines Act 1842.
- George Bull - Tory Parson
- Joseph Rayner Stephens - non conformist who also led the Lancashire Short Time Movement 1834.
Wordsworth and Robert Southey:
- Looked at pre-industrial period as a 'golden-age'.
- Believed industry robbed children of their childhood.
Thomas Babington Macaulay:
- Historian and MP, wanted reform on economic grounds.
- Believed damaged children were not effective workers.
1819: Factory Act
1819 Factory Act:
Was the work of Peel, influenced by Robert Owen, but only for cotten mills:
- No children under 9 be employed (they wanted 10)
- 9-16 not to work more than 12 hours (they wanted 11)
- Could only work 5am-9pm with 1&1/2 breaks
No inspectors, magistrates to enforce, act was largely ignored!
1831: Short time committees & Factory Act
- Short Time Committees - set up in West Riding, Lancashire and Sctoland. 1000s pamphlets issued, speakers advertised.
- The Factory Act - work of a radical called Hobhouse and a Tory:
- 17-18 year olds work maximum of 12 hours per day.
Still no inspectors and difficult to determine ages b/c no official information until 1836 (Births Marriages Deaths Act)
- Petition signed by 130,000 sent to Parliament.
- Michael Sadler introduced 10 Hour Bill, asked to chair committee to collect evidence, but lost seat in 1832 general election
- Lord Ashley took up the cause
1833: Sadlers Report, Royal Commission & Anthorps
- Michael Sadler's Report Published - one sided paternalist/humanitarian; report highlighted the worst conditions, but very one sided. Government set up Royal Commission, led by Edwin Chadwick and John Southwood - took 45 days.
- Royal Commission - was very Utilitarian:
- Human suffering led to ineffective workers
- Good conditions meant efficiency
- Children particulary vulnerable
- Adults were not beneifitted, this re-assured industrialists
- Althorp's Factory Act - applicable to all textile mills:
- No children under 9 to work in factories
- 9-13 work only 8 per day, 2 hours education
- 14-18 12 per day, between 5:30 and 8:30
- 4 Inspectors paid £1000 salary
10 Hour Movement persisted; relay system used to keep factories open; adults not helped, no method of discerning childs age; no money for schooling and 4 inspectors not enough (1836, one died)
1842: Royal Commission and Mines Act
- Royal Commission on the Employment of Women and Children in Mines:
- Published their findings, first sketches of mines revealed.
- Dangerous conditions, children of 5/6 yrs in mines, immoral (Humanitarians)
- Many in House of Lords against this, as many were owners of mines - e.g. Lord Londonderry.
- The Mines Act - drafted by Lord Ashley:
- Forbade employment of all women, and children under 10 in the mines
- 1 Inspector for all mines
Not enough inspectors, no clauses on working hours, women annoyed they cannot work in mines.
1843: Graham's Factory Bill
James Graham's (Home Secretary) Factory Bill:
Wanted to restrict 8-13 year olds to 6 hours per day, and give them 3 hours education in Church of England schools.
Non-conformists and the Catholic Church objected to the monopoly of CofE education.
1844: Oastler and The Factory Act
- Oastler - mounted another 10 hour campaign in North, much striking.
- The Factory Act (Graham's) - Conservatives put this through, led by Graham:
- 8-13 half timers work 6 & 1/2 hours.
- Dangerous machinery fenced off.
- Women restricted to 12 hours.
- Factories allowed to operate for 15 hours only.
No sign of 10 hours restrictions that outdoor pressures desired.
1847: Trade Depression and Fieldon's Factory Act
- Trade Depression in 1847:
- Demonstrations and strikes in the North.
- Peel no longer in power, many conservatives felt they could vote as they pleased, and could repeal the Corn Laws.
- Many workers only doing 10 hours b/c employers couldn't afford to pay them for any longer.
- Fieldon's Factory Act (10 Hour Act):
- Women and young people allowed to work for 10 hours only.
Adult males still working over 12 hours.
1850: Factory Act and Coal Mines Inspection Act
- Factory Act:
- Factories only open for 12 hours and must half 1 & 1/2 hour meal break
- Saturdays factories close at 12pm
Effectively shortened the working mans day and gave them free-time.
- Coal Mines Inspection Act:
- Mines with enough inspectors to manage them
- Royal School of Mines set up, so there were trained inspectors.
8 major ones: Eton, Harrow, Westminster, Rugby, St. Pauls, Shrewsbury, Winchester and Merchant Taylor; lots of minor ones:
- For the elite - those who could afford the fees
- Currciculm based on classics, didn't include maths until 1800
- Some progressive teachers e.g. Thomas Arnold of Rugby, introduced French and Maths
Ancient foundations going back to 16th Century:
- Curriculmn also classics
- Fees charged, some free places for the poor
Fee paying, but much cheaper than Public:
- Newer, started by impatience with Public e.g. Liverpool Royal Institution School 1819 taught maths, modern languages and sciences.
- 1 in 4 working class educated in this way - no hint of charity or social control, not regulated by authorities.
- Parents regarded teachers as employees - fitted w. cl. lifestyle - children attended when it suited them
Only on Sundays, meant that it fitted in well with children working:
- Chapel's and Churches used as schoolrooms, teachers gave services for free.
- Sunday School Union created 1780's, by 1801 2,290 branches increased to 23,135 in 1851 with 2 million enrolled.
- Effectively 3/4 of working class children 5-15 attended.
However, no obligation for children to attend, and many parents objected to the religious aspect.
Dame Schools and Ragged Schools
Run by elderley ladies, essentially glorified childminding!
1844, Ragged School Union set up by Lord Ashley to provide basic education for children of city clusm, hoping to deter them from crime.
- The National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Principals of the Established Church in England and Wales formed 1811 (Andrew Bell)/
- The British and Foreign School Society replaced the Lancastrian Society formed in 1808 by non-conformists.
- Bitter rivalry, but used the same teaching methods - monitorial system
- 3rd Group arrived in 1849 - Catholic Poor School Committee
1833 - EDUCATION
- Lord Kerry's report - ' Returns on Elementary Education' showed:
- 1.2 million (1/3 of children in England and Wales 4-12) attended private or voluntary school.
- 1.6 million attended Sunday Schools.
- Factory Act:
- Compulsory for all children to have 2 hours education per week.
- Some factories had their own schools, other ignored/forced children to go to local schools after work.
- No inspectors to enfore this
- £20,000 grant for building schools, not a large sum but in the right direction - recognised government responsibility.
- Money channeled to National and Lancastrain schools.
1839 - EDUCATION
- Run by James Kay Shuttleworth (Doctor who had worked in slums of Manchester), checked how grants spent.
- Belief that poor would only improve with education.
- He believed better standards only possible with well trained teachers; schools to be inspected - set up teacher training colleges, four by the end of 1839.
1846 & 1850 - EDUCATION
1846 - Teacher Apprenticeships, £10 per year from age 13, and £20 from age 18:
- Had to pass Inspectorates exam
- Assisted the Master in teaching, hoped to provide link between Gentry and working class.
- 29 teacher training colleges, all partly financed through 'The Queens Scholarship'.
- Grants increased to £370,000. Expansion of 'Her Majesty's Inspectorate' to ensure grant spent wisely.
Impacts of Changes to Education
- Accepted importance of elementary education & under state control.
- More children received basic education, laying foundation for future reform.
- Education Department created 1856 by Shuttleworths successor - Ralph Lingen.
- By 1880, education compulsory for all 5-10 years old.
- Little achieved in comparison to other areas.
- Few stayed in education past 11 years old.
- Unitarians and non-conformists opposed state influence/control.
- Many of the poor still did not go to school.