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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes

Revision Notes Gladstone & Disraeli

How far did Gladstone's First Ministry pass significant domestic reforms?

[Gladstone's victory in the 1868 election]

Test of how this new Liberal Party would react to favourable circumstances demanding
reform
Liberals won a landslide "mechanical" victory of 110 seats
Celtic…

Page 2

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Opposition:
Industrialists did not welcome the threat to sources of cheap labour

Terms:
Education was not compulsory but School Boards could pass byelaws make it obligatory
School Boards (2500) could pay for poorer children's fees from the rates
Clause 25 allowed School Boards to establish…

Page 3

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Cardwell's Army Reforms (Passed via OrderinCouncil and Royal Warrant)

Why:
Prussian success against Denmark and Austria 1860s and in the FrancoPrussian War
18701871 made it clear modernisation was vital
Gladstone wanted to end privilege and inefficiency in all areas of society
British army performed badly…

Page 4

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes

Why:
Long campaign for recognition of the right of workers to form trade unions which was illegal
due to restraint of trade
Pressure from New Model Unions which supported the Liberals in 1868
Hornby vs Close 1867 showed that Trade Unions funds were not protected…

Page 5

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes

Licensing Act 1872

Excessive consumption of alcohol was a problem as men spent their pay on drink rather than
the necessities
Liberalism had strong connection with Nonconformists which had links with the temperance
movement
First attempt by Home Secretary, Bruce, failed
Pressure from temperance groups…

Page 6

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes

Educational reformers ­ National Education League
Liberation Society wanted to disestablish the Church of England
New Model Unions ­ Wanted legal recognition for Trade Unions

Inefficiency:
Crimean War highlighted that the Armed Service were inefficient and needed to change
Indian use of meritocracy in Civil…

Page 7

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes

Key Points: £7 householder qualification in boroughs, £14 tenants qualification in counties
and "fancy franchises": a £10 lodger qualification for the boroughs and a £50 savings
qualification in the counties.
Adullamites (Liberals) led by Robert Lowe, opposed the Bill:
"Impulsive, unreflecting, violent people" guilty of…

Page 8

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes


Why:
Poor quality housing was a threat to health and the concentration of poor was seen to
threaten law and order
Pressure from Charity Organisation Society
Liberals had proposed the Torrens Act of 1868 which covered similar ground but was
blocked by the House of…

Page 9

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes

Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1875

Why:
Food and drugs were frequently adulterated ­ Chalk added to flour, acid to bear and baked
horse lover to coffee
Producers defended use of additives as it made it more affordable whilst other claimed it
added taste…

Page 10

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Effects:
"Settled the position of labour for a generation" ­ Alexander MacDonald, Trade Unionist
"Done more for the working class in 6 years than the Liberals had done in 50" ­ Liberal MP

Friendly Societies Act 1875

Why:
Friendly societies which offered insurance for members…

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