HISTORY AS Gladstone and Disraeli

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Revision Notes Gladstone & Disraeli
How far did Gladstone's First Ministry pass significant domestic reforms?
[Gladstone's victory in the 1868 election]
Test of how this new Liberal Party would react to favourable circumstances demanding
Liberals won a landslide "mechanical" victory of 110 seats
Celtic Fringe greatly favoured Gladstone
Disraeli immediately resigned which was unusual normally the outgoing Cabinet resigns
once defeated on legislation highlighting that voters were the driving force now
In Lancashire the Conservatives consolidated support through their antipapal theme which
brought violence against the Irish who seemed to take labour
Country hoped Gladstone would control the nation's finances and make it more efficient
Desire for change for democracy and end the last bastions of aristocratic privilege
Gladstone and Bright conducted energetic campaigns where they travelled extensively
Disraeli only posted his election address
Public School's Act 1868
Revised the governing bodies of the "Clarendon" schools ­ Harrow, Eaton etc
Separated the schools from the Crown, Church and government allowing them to develop
the curriculum (away from the Classics taught by the clergymen)
Endowed Schools Act 1869
Created a Commission to oversee the distribution of endowments for government funded
schools such as Manchester Grammar School
Further proposals for reorganisation had to be submitted to the Education Department
Forster's Education Act 1870
"Complete the voluntary system and full up the gaps" "to cover the country with good
schools" ­ Forster
Education was not well provided especially in Leeds and Birmingham. Provision for education
varied according to class with the rich attending schools such as Harrow, Westminster and
Eton followed by Oxbridge. Middle classes sent their children to feepaying grammar schools
whilst the poor could only rely on the charity schools. If not then Sunday school was a child's
only education.
Education was costly therefore the act sought to widen education cheaply
"Entrust the masses with power, their education becomes an imperative necessity" Robert
Lowe after the Second Reform Act 1867
Prussia was growing as a competitor and its workforce was best educated in Europe
American Civil War 18611865 and the FrancoPrussian War 18701871 displayed the
advantages of an educated population

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Industrialists did not welcome the threat to sources of cheap labour
Education was not compulsory but School Boards could pass byelaws make it obligatory
School Boards (2500) could pay for poorer children's fees from the rates
Clause 25 allowed School Boards to establish free schools in poor districts
Cost of education was to be met locally by fees and local education rates
CowperTemple clause stated that only nondenominational religious education was provided
in Board schools.…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Cardwell's Army Reforms (Passed via OrderinCouncil and Royal Warrant)
Prussian success against Denmark and Austria 1860s and in the FrancoPrussian War
18701871 made it clear modernisation was vital
Gladstone wanted to end privilege and inefficiency in all areas of society
British army performed badly in Crimean War 185456 and the American Civil War 186165
showed that warfare was changing
Purchase of commissions was abolished
Commander in Chief of the army was subordinated to the Secretary of State for…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Long campaign for recognition of the right of workers to form trade unions which was illegal
due to restraint of trade
Pressure from New Model Unions which supported the Liberals in 1868
Hornby vs Close 1867 showed that Trade Unions funds were not protected by law
Trade Unions should not be considered illegal on the grounds of restraint of trade
Recognised the right to strike
Trade Union funds were protected by law
Picketing of any king was…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Licensing Act 1872
Excessive consumption of alcohol was a problem as men spent their pay on drink rather than
the necessities
Liberalism had strong connection with Nonconformists which had links with the temperance
First attempt by Home Secretary, Bruce, failed
Pressure from temperance groups such as UK Alliance and Band of Hope Union
Magistrates to grant licenses
Measures were undertaken to check for the adulteration of drinks
Pubs had to close at 11:00pm in the country and midnight…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Educational reformers ­ National Education League
Liberation Society wanted to disestablish the Church of England
New Model Unions ­ Wanted legal recognition for Trade Unions
Crimean War highlighted that the Armed Service were inefficient and needed to change
Indian use of meritocracy in Civil Service showed a better system
To what extent was Disraeli a genuine social reformer?
[Second Reform Act 1867]
1832 First Reform Bill
Small boroughs (Rotten/Pocket boroughs) were over represented in comparison to the
1859…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Key Points: £7 householder qualification in boroughs, £14 tenants qualification in counties
and "fancy franchises": a £10 lodger qualification for the boroughs and a £50 savings
qualification in the counties.…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Poor quality housing was a threat to health and the concentration of poor was seen to
threaten law and order
Pressure from Charity Organisation Society
Liberals had proposed the Torrens Act of 1868 which covered similar ground but was
blocked by the House of Lords
Local authorities given right to pull down slums and replace them with better accommodation
Local authorities could purchase property and after redevelopment could let them to urban
workers with favourable rents
Established minimum…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
Sale of Food and Drugs Act 1875
Food and drugs were frequently adulterated ­ Chalk added to flour, acid to bear and baked
horse lover to coffee
Producers defended use of additives as it made it more affordable whilst other claimed it
added taste
Provided appointment of public analysts of food and drugs
Stated nothing injurious to health could be added to food and drugs
Appointment of public analysts was not made compulsory until 1879
Act avoided…read more

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Gladstone and Disraeli history notes
"Settled the position of labour for a generation" ­ Alexander MacDonald, Trade Unionist
"Done more for the working class in 6 years than the Liberals had done in 50" ­ Liberal MP
Friendly Societies Act 1875
Friendly societies which offered insurance for members who became sick/unemployed etc in
exchange for dues were not regulated
They were used by the working and lower middle class but law did not protect their funds
Government could regulate
Safeguard funds
System…read more


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