- In 1517 Pope Leo X issued the indulgence for the reconstruction of St Peter's.
- Annates and First Fruits angered people
- Alexander VI created 12 new cardinals for 120,000 ducats
- Huge amounts of money was given to Alexander VI's son, Cesare Borgia, for his own independent Principility in the heart of Italy.
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- Alexander VI had 8 children, all of which became cardinals during his pontificate.
- Rigorous sale of indulgences allowed by Leo X, angered reformers such as Luther.
- Archbishop of Salzberg was charged 10,000 guilden for becoming an Archbishop
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Lack of Religious Guidance
- Julius II took on the name "warrier pope" due to his vast involvement in war.
- Julius II was involved in the Italian Wars (1494-1559)
- In 1508 Pope Julius II organised the League of Cumbrai as he disliked Venice, it's aim was to secure Rome ventian lands. He shouldn't be involved in this/
- 1511 organised the Holy League against the French, designed to weaken French Influence in Italy.
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- In 1500 published his Adages, didn't really cause a reform but this was grounding in his elief all should be able to access scripture.
- 1503 - Handbook of a Christian Soldier - wanted to reform the Church to a simple imitation of Christ.
- 1509 - Praise of Folly - mocked children, school teachers and elders. Hugely successful, ended with a bitter attack against the Church.
- 1516 - New Testement in Greek - undermined Catholic Authorities. Jean the Baptist said to 'do penance', supporting a Catholic teaching. Erasmus' translation said to 'change your mind', not literally, but to have an inner change of heart.
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Growth in Nationalism
- Luther was described as your average German "bloke", people felt at ease with this local reformer, as opposed to an Italian Pope who people couldnt connect to.
- All the 15th century Popes were Spanish/Italian, large majority also in the 16th century.
- Popes taxed heavily with Annates and First Fruits, people resented religious authority for this.
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