Genetic vulnerability: Sheilds (1962) twin study found high concordance for smoking.
Sensitivity of dopamine receptors: nicotine increases dopamine.
Activation of dopamine reward pathways: body stops producing as much nicotine because it expects nicotine, so nicotine is needed to maintain normal dopamine levels
Avoid withdrawal effects caused by the physical addiction
Physical craving and withdrawal symptoms make relapse likely
Modelling and vicarious reinforcement through parents and peers
Positive reinforcement from peers eg. attention
Direct reinforcement from effects eg. weight loss, reduced stress
Reinforcement from social group
Negative reinforcement - avoiding withdrawal
Exposure to cues classically conditioned to smoking, eg. after a meal
Negative reinforcment - seeking removal of withdrawal effects
Directly punished by increased stress and weight gain etc
Learning Model - Research
2x likely to smoke if parents do. 7x less likely to smoke if parents are anti-smoking.
Michell and West (1996) showed that peer pressure is complex and teenagers may not be so susceptible to it as once thought.
Expectancies of positive effects
Negative effects minimised by high self-efficacy "I can control my smoking"
Beleif in positive aspects
Expectencies of withdrawal symptoms
High self-efficacy "I can give up any time"
Percieved negative consequences
Cognitive - Research
A study researching reasons for 11-12 year olds starting to smoke found that their behavioural intentions were a good predictor of subsequent smoking behaviour.
Cognitive factors may be key in developing anti-smoking campaigns.
Interaction of all three approaches is probably best for explaining smoking addiction.
Smoking is seen as a social habbit so social factors are as key as biological factors.