Addiction. Smoking initiation, maintenance and relapse

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Explain the cognitive explination of the Initiation of Smoking
Expectancy Theory. Addicts expect good consequences from behaviour
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Brandon and Baker.
Smokers report that they smoke to alleviate low moods
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Addicts use a different language eg. police "out of control" peers rational-hard to define addiction
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What is the cognitive theory of smoking maintinence?
Brandon et al. Addiction is controlled by unconscious expectancies which explains loss of control and relapses
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Hurt et al
Nicotine inconsistant because it doesnt fulfill positive expectancies
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Criticisms of the cognitive theory of smoking maintinence
Most research is into excessive behaviour not addiction. Publication bias.
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Cognitive explanation of smoking relapse
Individuals who percieve benefits from behaviour and cost of quitting wont quit
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Juliano And Brandon.
Smokers didnt get benefits from nicotine patch relapse.
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Inplications of cognitive smoking explination
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Lerning Thoery of smoking initiation
Role models vicarious reinforcement through peers and friends and positive reinforcements
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Support of LT of smoking initiation
Mayeeux et al positive correlation between smoking at 16 and popularity two years later. Karcher and Finn people with smoking family 8X more likely to
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Drug/smoking prevention programmes aimed at adolescent when most vulnerable
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SLT Maintinence of smoking
Thwessin et al. cue predicting smoking lead to greater urge to smoke
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SLT Relapse of smoking
Conditioned cues increase need for cigarrette. Self-Effacy. those with high confidence can abstain.
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Drummond et al
CUE EXPOSURE without smoking leads to SENSORY DISCRIMINATION and association is forgotten
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Biological approach of smoking initiation
Genetic vulnerability. Heritability 39-80% D2 receptors associated with addiction
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42 reared apart twins only 9 pairs discordant (one smokes the other doesnt). COMINGS ET AL increased incidence of A1 variant among ex/smokers. Men with varient had shorter abstinence peroids
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Biological smoking maintinence
Increase in release of dopamine. short lived feelings of pleasure, then impairment of mood. Smoke to reduce withdrawal symptoms.
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Corigall and Coen
Mice self-administer nicotine into reward centres of brain unless dopamine ystem was inhibited
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Biological smoking relapse
Genetics. Addicts expect rewards subconciously through cues.
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Twins. 54% risk of failure hereditory
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Afer one night abstinece increase blood flow in memore attenton reward areas
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Individual difference eg. explains why not everyone is addicted
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Environmental Factors
Fowler 1000 twins and environmental factors crucial for initiation, genetics maintinence
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Reduce socio/cultural influence to the act of neurochemicals
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Brandon and Baker.


Smokers report that they smoke to alleviate low moods

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What is the cognitive theory of smoking maintinence?


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Hurt et al


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