Excretion - Taboo

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Excretion

  • Removal
  • Metabolic Waste
  • Urea
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Metabolic Waste

  • Waste substances
  • Toxic
  • Chemical reactions
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Deamination

  • Amine group
  • Amino acid
  • Ammonia
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Hepatic Portal Vein

  • Blood vessel
  • Capillaries
  • Liver
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Kupffer Cells

  • Breakdown
  • Recycling
  • Red blood cells
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Bilirubin

  • Waste product
  • Breakdown
  • Haemoglobin
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Urea

  • Excretory product
  • Breakdown
  • Amino acids
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Ornithine Cycle

  • Ammonia
  • Cytosol
  • Mitochondria
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Detoxification

  • Toxic molecules
  • Non-toxic molecules
  • Catalase
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Nephron

  • Functional unit
  • Cortex
  • Urine
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Glomerulus

  • Increases
  • Blood pressure
  • Nephron
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Selective Reabsorption

  • Nephron
  • Blood stream
  • Excretory substances
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Afferent Arteriole

  • Blood
  • Glomerulus
  • Wider
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Efferent Arteriole

  • Blood
  • Glomerulus
  • Narrower
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Ultrafiltration

  • Molecular
  • Glomerulus
  • Bowman's capsule
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Podocytes

  • Specialised
  • Bowman's capsule
  • Epithelium
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Basement Membrane

  • Endothelium
  • Epithelium
  • Ultrafiltration
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Microvilli

  • Cell surface membrane
  • Increase
  • Surface area
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Co-Transporter Proteins

  • Cell surface membrane
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Ions
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Facilitated Diffusion

  • Enhanced
  • Proteins
  • Cell membrane
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Sodium-Potassium Pumps

  • Proteins
  • Concentration gradient
  • Active transport
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Endocytosis

  • Cytoplasm
  • Invagination
  • Vesicle
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Hairpin Countercurrent Multiplier

  • Tubule
  • Loop of Henle
  • High Concentration
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Osmoregulation

  • Regulation
  • Water potential
  • Kidneys
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Distal Convoluted Tubule

  • Nepron
  • Loop of Henle
  • Collecting duct
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Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

  • Pituitary gland
  • Collecting ducts
  • Reabsorption
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Osmoreceptors

  • Receptor cells
  • Water potential
  • Neurosecretory cells
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Hypothalamus

  • Brain
  • Neurosecretory cells
  • Blood
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Neurosecretory Cells

  • Specialised
  • Hormone
  • Terminal bulb
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Posterior Pituitary Gland

  • Pituitary gland
  • ADH
  • Brain
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Half-Life

  • Time taken
  • Concentration
  • Original value
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Dialysis

  • Partially permeable membrane
  • Filter
  • Blood
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Dialysis Membrane

  • Partially permeable membrane
  • Dialysis machine
  • Dialysis fluid
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Haemodialysis

  • Vein
  • Dialsysis machine
  • Artificial partially permeable membrane
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Peritoneal Dialysis

  • Dialysis fluid
  • Body cavity
  • Peritoneal membrane
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Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)

  • Hormone
  • Human embryos
  • Pregnancy
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Monoclonal Antibodies

  • Identical
  • Clones
  • Pregnancy test
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Anabolic Steroids

  • Drugs
  • Steroid hormones
  • Muscle growth
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Gas Chromatography

  • Separate
  • Gaseous state
  • Testing
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Chromatogram

  • Chart
  • Permeable paper/gel
  • Movement of solvent
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